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Nepal's Urban Planning and Dvelopment

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A Presentation made to the student of BDevS at Center for Development Studies, National College for Higher Education, KU in October 2014, kathmandu, Nepal

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Nepal's Urban Planning and Dvelopment

  1. 1. Nepal: Urban planning and development Lecture Series 4 BDevS, Center for Development Studies National College for Higher Education, KU, Nepal Rajendra P Sharma rpsharma@mailcity.com
  2. 2. Nepal: Where are we ! Urban Poverty Situation !! Out of 664,507 HH in the Municipalities of Nepal:  Temporary Houses : 101,005  House made up of mud : 225,932  Houses using Kerosene for Light : 107, 650  HHs do not have Flush Toilets : 312,318  HHs even have no toilet : 145,527  HHs using fire woods for cooking : 220,616  HHs using kerosene : 226,597  HHs using Bio Gas only : 181,410  HHs having traditional water source : 206,072  HHs having piped drinking water : 439,239  Population not having TV : 45%  Population neither have TV nor Radio : 24% Source: CBS 2001
  3. 3. Nepal: Where are we ! Urban Poverty Situation Among 664,507 Urban HHs in Nepal:  Temporary Shelter : 15%  Residing in Rented Houses : 35%  Disadvantaged Groups : 21%  No easy access to water/Quantity : 5 %  Have no proper/adequate fuel : 36%  Have no proper light : 16 %  Have no proper toilet : 22% Among 3,227,879 Urban Population:  Illiterate (6 years or more aged) : 28%  Have no work (active population : 10 %  Death by poverty related diseases : 13 %  Population not having TV : 45%  Population neither have TV nor Radio : 24% This is the reason to have focus on Municipal Periodic Plan Source: CBS 2001
  4. 4. Defining urban area 1  Urban and Rural character  Economic activity and livelihood  Population Density and composition  Infrastructure and services; and resources  Market, institutions  Culture, civilization and innovation  Concentration of population: economic, social and political implications (higher per capita productivity; Political process and participation)  Resource consumption and pollution emission
  5. 5. Defining Urban Area 2  Acceptable basis: Density, occupational structure  Criteria used in Nepal  1952 census: prominent settlement, ≥5000 population  1961 census: Urban environment, ≥ 5000 population  Municipal Act 1962: Urban environment, ≥ 10,000 population  LSGA 1999: Metropolitan City (≥ 300,000; NPR 400 m revenue; Urban facilities; already sub-metropolitan); Sub-metropolitan (≥ 100,000; NPR 100 m revenue; Urban facilities; already Municipality);, Municipality (Tarai ≥ 20,000; NPR 5 m revenue; Urban facilities), Municipality (Hill ≥ 10,000; NPR 500,000
  6. 6. Municipal sizes  ≥ 100,000 population: 1 metropolitan, 4 sub-metropolitan, Over 39% population  20,000 to 100,000 population 45 municipalities, over 54% population  10,000 to 20,000: 8 municipalities, over 4 % popn  Small towns: less than 10,000 popn Hill/ mountains 550 Kathmandu Valley 10,265 Inner Tarai 402 Tarai 1,092 Urban total 985 Rural total 136 Urban density (person/ sq.km.) 2001 Sizes
  7. 7. Urban Feature, Indicator Highlights  Contribution to economy : urban economy growing @ 6.4 % annum, contribute about 60% of GDP.  Economic base: service and trade oriented, links with rural  Distribution: along E-W Highway, India Border, Kathmandu & Central (19 places, 55% population)  Defined and undefined urban areas: 58 defined, 132 small towns, 600 market centers.
  8. 8. Main Constraints  Lack of vision and coordination: no long-term perspective, linking national development with urban development. No urban development policy/ strategy.  Urban expansion  Sectoral policy/ plan and institution dominates urban development: problems of coordination  LSGA: municipalities increased role for urban governance, development and management: but lack capacity (HR, Financial)- depends on central grants/ large proportion spent on administration and salary
  9. 9. Major urban challenges  Service and Land management  National development policy  Donor driven development  Management of migration/displaced person  Waste and pollution Management  Maintaining Infrastructures, service & creating jobs  Devolution/Decentralization  High Rate of Urbanization - Increase in nos. of Municipalities without basic infrastructures and services  Population growth in the municipalities  Allocation of Central Government fund to the cities is less as compared to the contribution of the cities to GDP
  10. 10. Urban Concerns Total 1,350 t/ day: Kathmandu 383 t/day Per capita per day 0.34 kg (vary 0.11 to 0.93 kg) Solid waste Air pollution Emerging issue in major towns: vehicular/industrial emission, waste burning, adulterated fuel. Kathmandu Foggy days increased: 38 d/y (1970) to 60 d/ y (1994) Indoor air pollution in smaller towns: (biomass fuel) Health impacts: ARI, Pneumonia, Bronchitis, Asthma Congestion Urban roads: narrow, poor network function, lacks parking Deficiency in planning and provision: Increase in vehicles not matched by provision of roads and infrastructure Mix traffic types, poor driving, bad parking, roadside trading add to traffic congestion Impact: travel time, air/noise, fuel consumption
  11. 11. Decentralization Chronology YEAR INITIATIVE REMARKS 1962 Constitution of Nepal Emphasis on decentralization of Panchayats 27 June 2007 Creation of post of Chief District Officer (CDO) 1965 Local Administration Act Decentralization plan of three phases Panchayat Development Land Tax (PDLT), Pilot scheme 1972 Local Development Department Creation of post of Panchayat Development Officer (PDO) 1974 District Administration Plan Provision for District Development Plan 1978 Integrated Panchayat Development Design Idea of "Service Centre" as focal point for local planning 1979, PDLT withdrawn 1980 Establishment of Ministry of Local Development (MLD) Conversion of PDO to LDO (Local Development Officer) 1981 Merger of Panchayat and Local Development Ministries as MPLD Integrated Rural Development Central Co-ordination Board 1982 Decentralization Act Districts to prepare periodic plans 1984 Decentralization Rules District, Village, Town Panchayats to prepare annual/periodic plans 1989 Supporting Decentralized Planning Project (SLDP) 1992 DDC, VDC and Municipality Act Increased responsibility for local development 1992 1992 DDC, VDC and Municipality Rules Decentralization Support Project (DSP) 1995, Participatory District Development Project (PDDP) 1996 Decentralization Co-ordination Committee 1996, Local Governance Programme (LGP) 1999 Local Self-governance Act More on delegation than devolution
  12. 12. Urban and Physical Planning in Nepal  Nepal undergone several political changes after Rana regime.  History of urban planning began with Third National Plan (1967-71)  In 1973, Town Plan Implementation Act (TPIA) was enacted  In 1982, a Decentralization Act to facilitate development processes  In 1988, the Town Development Act (TDA) was promulgated  In 1992, Municipal Act and Rules were defined  Till date, more than 33 municipalities prepared IAPs. But, IAPs failed due to contradictory legal framework and weaknesses in terms of institutional capacities at both central and local levels.  MPPW helps municipalities to develop periodic plans (3 to 5 years)  involvement of municipalities in planning has positive results 27 June 2007
  13. 13. Municipal Distribution in Nepal
  14. 14. Framework: Municipal’s Decision Making EVERY VOTER IN THE CONSTITUENCY WARD COMMITTEE WARD FOOTPRINT SMALL LOCAL GROUP POLLING BOOTH LEVEL WARD/COUNCILLOR WARD CHAIRPERSON MUNICIPALITY MUNICIPAL AREA/ CITYLEVEL TOLE SABHA REPRESENTATIVE
  15. 15. Linkages: Municipality’s formal system Water Supply Schemes Water Groups Police Communit y Police Solid Waste Mgmt SWM Compost Groups Urban Poverty Program s Self Help Groups Urban Planning N’hood Forums Road Works Supervisio n Resident Welfare Associs’n Municipality Ward Councilors Chairperson ??????? “Why have so many different platforms? Why not a single, permanent platform, linked to the city’s decision-systems, which can be available for all issues?”
  16. 16. LINKS AMONG THE URBAN STAKEHOLDERS Central Government (MLD and MPPW) Urban Development Partners (International and national) NPC Municipalities 1 2 3 4 57 58 Citizens LEGEND • established link • Potential link
  17. 17. Future Direction  Clear Vision: How Urban Dev. links with National Dev. & rural dev.?  Urban development strategy: better criteria/definition for conferring urban status, independent body certify area for urban status, improved coordination, mandate & responsibility.  Strengthen urban governance : These are the key to sustainability - decentralization, participation, Resource & Capacity Building.  Integrated, planned and holistic approach: (not only for urban infrastructure provision, Urban development is broad, multi-sectoral).
  18. 18. Urban Planning and Development Where we want to go? And, What should we do……….now? ? If we want better future We should question, advocate, plan and better implement those plans and programs
  19. 19. PLANNING PROCESS
  20. 20. What is Urban planning?  Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the world's largest cities.  Urban Planning - for improvement of urban centers to provide healthy, safe living condition, efficient transport, communication, adequate public facility, and aesthetic surroundings.  Urban planning is the discipline of land use planning which explores several aspects of the infrastructures and social environments of municipalities and communities. Other professions deal in more detail with a smaller scale of development, namely architecture, landscape architecture and urban design. 27 June 2007
  21. 21. Why urban planning ? Urban planning, serve as a reference for all activities that manages the promotion of urban citizens, that include:  Setting up infrastructures or collective equipment,  Granting land to private developers,  Facilitating activity set-up,  Obtaining building permits. 27 June 2007
  22. 22. History of Urban Planning  Many ancient cities were built from definite plans;  Greek Hippodamus (c.407 BC) considered father of city plan in West  Urban planning in organized way existed for less than a century;  John Nash planned some section of London; Vienna; Paris in 19th century  Since early 20th century, planning for cities has emphasized  Early 21st century, new urban theory and innovative planning concepts developed. 27 June 2007
  23. 23. Urban development Concept and strategy 27 June 2007
  24. 24. City Strategic framework: Structure for 27 June 2007 strategic agenda
  25. 25. a 'sustainable' or ideal home city might look like  compact, efficient land use;  less automobile but better access;  efficient resource use, less pollution and waste;  good housing and living environments;  a healthy social ecology;  sustainable economics;  community participation and preservation of culture and wisdom. Successful urban planning considers character, of "home" 27 June 2007
  26. 26. Planning Process Urban planning procedure follows a cyclical process  Data collection, estimates, diagnostics,  Determination of stakes and objectives,  Definition and choice of strategy,  Drawing up of plans of action,  Promotion and implementation,  Assessment and check. 27 June 2007
  27. 27. Actors and planning process  Traditional planning focused top-down: town planner creates plan  Over past decades, role of urban planner become democratic  Community workers now involved in planning at grassroots level.  The Contemporary city Planning process is highly complex:  step-by-step procedure, involve a series of survey/studies,  development of land-use plan and transportation plan,  preparation of a budget, and  approval of unified master plan by various agency or legislative bodies.
  28. 28. Information input in urban planning  Information input in urban planning is primarily of 2 types:  satellite and photogrammetric images,  tabular data garnered from censuses, studies.  Benefits provided by satellite images include the following:  global observations of land cover,  fast processing of data using automated classification and techniques,  cost effectiveness in comparison with ground surveys and digitization methods. 27 June 2007
  29. 29. Planning tools: data use  Physical maps  Activity maps  Facility maps  Local plan maps  Risk and pollution maps  Land use regulation map  Socio-economic maps: Demography, Sociology, Economy, Housing 27 June 2007
  30. 30. The three Keys in Planning  The 3-steps process determining where you are now, determining where you want to go, and then determining how to get there?  These questions are the essence of success!  It can be start with the self evaluation on your:  Strengths,  Weaknesses,  Opportunities, and  Threats SWOT Analysis
  31. 31. Key aspects of participatory planning Participation: where we can generate:  Ideas - People deciding the factors governing them  Democratic institution - Participatory governance institutions  Democratic practice - the political participation Key aspects of Participation  Formal structure decision-making  Permanent platform for participation  Inclusive platform for all citizens  Common system for various issues  For citizens: the opportunity and no excuse not to participate!
  32. 32. Key focus on urban planning Urban Poverty [Vicious Circle] Low investment Low income Temporary job/ paid not sufficient Not rely on own Production Low Education Quality High level of violence Health & Hygiene Need to pay for every services (Health, Sanitation, Education, Water) Break by external Illegal Settlement involvement
  33. 33. Vision for Planning  Vision: a comprehensive vision at citizens’ level can create participation  Series: a series of campaign can create an ownership over the plan
  34. 34. The steps in the planning process Govt. The City Government Strategic planning Institutions Workshop Community Participation Strategic planning committee Strategic Plan Central Government NGOs, local self-help group, Institutions, and Intellectuals Strategic planning Workshop Community Participation Strategic planning committee Strategic Plan As product
  35. 35. Outcomes from planning Engaged citizens A felt sense of purpose Permanent involvement through legitimate platforms Improved city management Enhanced use of data Regular sharing of information Emergence of financially sustainable cities Equitable outcomes Infrastructure needs identified & prioritised by the people Increased stakeholder ownership Building partnerships with citizens-the permanent stakeholders
  36. 36. Develop an Municipal plan “Impact Chain” for City Development Level Name of the Development Intervention: Partner Organization: Intermediary: Target Group: Impact Direct benefit Indicators: Utilisation of outputs Outputs Activities No need for indicator, activities are implemented Resources
  37. 37. The concluding remarks … … In this rapidly urbanizing world, the number of city dwellers are increasing at a steep rate. So, is increasing the discrepancies. Therefore, Please let’s do something for better plan of our cities from our ends and send out thoughtful messages for a safe and secure future, wherever we are living!!
  38. 38. References

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