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How To Conduct A Survey
Research
Selecting and defining a problem
• What you intend to do?
• Why you intend to do?
• The problem statement should be writte...
Significance Of The Study
• The importance of the topic be investigated
• Can the findings be applied to the
practitioner?...
Literature Review
• The relatedness between problem statement
and theory (psychology, sociology, etc, etc)
• 1 theory? 2 t...
Literature Review
• Sources:
– Books
– Article journals
– Thesis
– Documents
– Dictionary
– Blog??
– News??
– Wikipedia??
Selecting participants
• Identify the respondents who have the information
you need
– Who has access to the information
• ...
Selecting participants
• Population and Sampling
– Define the population under study.
– Once the general nature of the res...
Selecting participants
• Population and Sampling
– Choose relevant sampling procedures
– If a sample is well selected, the...
Selecting participants
• Population and Sampling
– Choose relevant sampling procedures
• Random Sampling
• Nonrandom Sampl...
Data
Collection
Methods
Questionnaire
Directly self
administered
Mail/e-mail
Interview
Telephone
interview
Personal/
Face-...
Selecting measuring instruments
Gay, Mills & Airasian (2009):
• Questionnaire
– A written collection of survey questions t...
Selecting measuring instruments
Questionnaire
Structured/
close-ended
item
checklist Likert
Unstructured/
open-ended
item
...
Selecting measuring instruments
(interview)
Interview
Structured
interview
Unstructured
interview
Selecting measuring instruments
Likert
Read the statement and circle whether you strongly
disagree (1), disagree (2), unce...
Selecting measuring instruments
Free Response Item
Write about your science teacher.
_____________________________________...
Selecting measuring instruments
GUIDELINES
Collect
demographic
information of the
samples
Include only items
related to th...
Selecting measuring instruments
GUIDELINES
- Background information
- Eg gender, age, teaching experience, grade
category ...
Selecting measuring instruments
GUIDELINES
- Avoid unnecessary questions
- Identify sub-areas of the research topic
Includ...
Measuring Instrument
• Construct
– Can’t be observed directly
– A concept invented to explain behavior
– To be measurable,...
Selecting measuring instruments
GUIDELINES
• Short questions are easier to understand
• Avoid trick words
• Respondents ar...
Selecting measuring instruments
GUIDELINES
• Avoid ‘double-barreled” questions i.e.
questions which attempt to ask two que...
Selecting measuring instruments
GUIDELINES
• Quantify responses whenever possible.
• The words ‘sometimes’, ‘often’, ‘usua...
Selecting measuring instruments
GUIDELINES
• How much money you spend for food in the canteen
everyday? (X)
• Do you buy f...
Selecting measuring instruments
GUIDELINES
• Direction: what to do? How to respond?
– Circle the choice that you most agre...
Selecting measuring instruments
GUIDELINES
• Try out with a small sample similar to
intended group of respondents
• Validi...
Measuring Instrument
• Achievement test
– Paper-and-pencil test
– Performance test
• Aptitude test/Intelligence test
– To ...
Measuring Instrument
• Standardized instrument
– Selecting a standardized instrument takes less
time than developing one’s...
Validity
• Measures what it supposed to measure
• Abstract variables Vs physical science
• Anxiety, motivation, attitudes ...
Validity
• Concurrent validity
– The degree to which performance on one test relates
to performance on a previously valida...
Validity
• Construct validity
– Refers to the degree to which an instrument of
assessment measures a trait that is not dir...
Validity
• Content validity
– The extent to which experts believe that the
instrument addresses the research objectives.
–...
Validity
• Predictive validity
– The degree to which estimated performance becomes
reality
Scholastic
Aptitude Test
CGPA
Reliability
• Measures whatever it is measuring
consistently
• A measuring instrument can be reliable
without being valid
...
Reliability Coefficients
• Test-retest coefficients
• Alternate forms coefficients
• Internal-consistency coefficients
Reliability Coefficients
• Test-retest coefficients
– Coefficient of stability
– Consistency of subjects’ scores over time...
Reliability Coefficients
• Alternate forms coefficients
– Coefficient of equivalence
– Consistency of subjects’ scores on ...
Reliability Coefficients
• Internal-consistency coefficients
– To determine whether all the items in a test are
measuring ...
Executing research procedure (+ data
collection)
Directly administered questionnaires
• Questionnaire is administered to a...
 how to conduct a survey research sem 1 session 20152016
 how to conduct a survey research sem 1 session 20152016
 how to conduct a survey research sem 1 session 20152016
 how to conduct a survey research sem 1 session 20152016
 how to conduct a survey research sem 1 session 20152016
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how to conduct a survey research sem 1 session 20152016

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Nota Dr. Norila Md Saleh., Kajian Tinjauan

Publicado en: Educación
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how to conduct a survey research sem 1 session 20152016

  1. 1. How To Conduct A Survey Research
  2. 2. Selecting and defining a problem • What you intend to do? • Why you intend to do? • The problem statement should be written clearly
  3. 3. Significance Of The Study • The importance of the topic be investigated • Can the findings be applied to the practitioner? • Will the findings considered necessary to advance the pool of education knowledge in general?
  4. 4. Literature Review • The relatedness between problem statement and theory (psychology, sociology, etc, etc) • 1 theory? 2 theories? 3 theories? ? ? ? ? ? • Related? Relevant? Focus?
  5. 5. Literature Review • Sources: – Books – Article journals – Thesis – Documents – Dictionary – Blog?? – News?? – Wikipedia??
  6. 6. Selecting participants • Identify the respondents who have the information you need – Who has access to the information • people who experienced an event – The characteristics of the people who have experienced an event • Very young children – It may be necessary to ask parents or responsible adults for information – The best source of information • Depends on the type of information needed • Eg parents, school records, teachers etc The reading behavior of five-year-old children STAIL KEPIMPINAN GURU BESAR
  7. 7. Selecting participants • Population and Sampling – Define the population under study. – Once the general nature of the respondents has been identified, researcher has to be more specific about the information resources. – The conceptual definition of the population has to be translated into operational terms. – Determine sample size – Choose samples
  8. 8. Selecting participants • Population and Sampling – Choose relevant sampling procedures – If a sample is well selected, the result of a study testing the sample should be generalizable to the population (Gay, Mills, Airasian; 2009)
  9. 9. Selecting participants • Population and Sampling – Choose relevant sampling procedures • Random Sampling • Nonrandom Sampling
  10. 10. Data Collection Methods Questionnaire Directly self administered Mail/e-mail Interview Telephone interview Personal/ Face-to-face Observation
  11. 11. Selecting measuring instruments Gay, Mills & Airasian (2009): • Questionnaire – A written collection of survey questions to be answered by a selected group of research participants • Interview – An oral, in-person question-and-answer session between a researcher and an individual respondent. • Observation (Wiseman, 1999) – Is a process by which desired information is obtained by observing or video recording, the occurrence or nonoccurrence of defined behavior. – Eg researcher desires to evaluate student behavior in the classroom or in specific activity
  12. 12. Selecting measuring instruments Questionnaire Structured/ close-ended item checklist Likert Unstructured/ open-ended item Free response item
  13. 13. Selecting measuring instruments (interview) Interview Structured interview Unstructured interview
  14. 14. Selecting measuring instruments Likert Read the statement and circle whether you strongly disagree (1), disagree (2), uncertain (3), agree (4), or strongly agree (5) Read the statement and circle whether you strongly disagree (SD), disagree (D), uncertain (U), agree (A), or strongly agree (SA) Item Strongly Disagree Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Agree My science teacher is friendly. 1 2 3 4 5 My science teacher is friendly. SD D U A SA
  15. 15. Selecting measuring instruments Free Response Item Write about your science teacher. __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________
  16. 16. Selecting measuring instruments GUIDELINES Collect demographic information of the samples Include only items related to the objective of the study Questionnaires should be brief Items should be uni-dimensional Avoid terms that may give different meaning to different people Avoid question that assumes a fact not necessarily true Write directions for respondents Pilot testing the questionnaire
  17. 17. Selecting measuring instruments GUIDELINES - Background information - Eg gender, age, teaching experience, grade category etc Collect demographic information of the samples
  18. 18. Selecting measuring instruments GUIDELINES - Avoid unnecessary questions - Identify sub-areas of the research topic Include only items related to the objective of the study
  19. 19. Measuring Instrument • Construct – Can’t be observed directly – A concept invented to explain behavior – To be measurable, constructs must be operationally defined • Attitude towards teaching profession
  20. 20. Selecting measuring instruments GUIDELINES • Short questions are easier to understand • Avoid trick words • Respondents are much more likely to complete a short questionnaire Questionnaires should be brief
  21. 21. Selecting measuring instruments GUIDELINES • Avoid ‘double-barreled” questions i.e. questions which attempt to ask two questions in one Items should be uni-dimensional
  22. 22. Selecting measuring instruments GUIDELINES • Quantify responses whenever possible. • The words ‘sometimes’, ‘often’, ‘usually’ have different meanings for different people • Use word such as ‘daily’, once a week’, etc Avoid terms that may give different meaning to different people
  23. 23. Selecting measuring instruments GUIDELINES • How much money you spend for food in the canteen everyday? (X) • Do you buy foods from the canteen? – If so, how much money you spend for food in the canteen everyday? • How many times do you bring your students to the computer laboratory per week? Avoid question that assumes a fact not necessarily true
  24. 24. Selecting measuring instruments GUIDELINES • Direction: what to do? How to respond? – Circle the choice that you most agree with – Rank you choices from 1 to 4 – Tick your answer • What is it about? Write directions for respondents
  25. 25. Selecting measuring instruments GUIDELINES • Try out with a small sample similar to intended group of respondents • Validity of the instrument • Reliability of the instrument Pilot testing the questionnaire
  26. 26. Measuring Instrument • Achievement test – Paper-and-pencil test – Performance test • Aptitude test/Intelligence test – To measure skills and knowledge in specific areas • Attitude scale – Attitudes of individuals/groups are of great interest of educational researchers
  27. 27. Measuring Instrument • Standardized instrument – Selecting a standardized instrument takes less time than developing one’s own instrument – Translation • Self-developed instrument – Standardized instrument may not suitable for the specific objectives of a research
  28. 28. Validity • Measures what it supposed to measure • Abstract variables Vs physical science • Anxiety, motivation, attitudes Vs length, volume, weight • Categories of validity – Concurrent validity – Construct validity – Content validity – Predictive validity
  29. 29. Validity • Concurrent validity – The degree to which performance on one test relates to performance on a previously validated test. 0.0 – 0.29 low correlation 0.30 – 0.69 medium correlation 0.70 – 1.00 high correlation
  30. 30. Validity • Construct validity – Refers to the degree to which an instrument of assessment measures a trait that is not directly observable – Does not yield a correlation coefficient – Judgments
  31. 31. Validity • Content validity – The extent to which experts believe that the instrument addresses the research objectives. – Based upon judgments – Eg. Ujian pencapaian
  32. 32. Validity • Predictive validity – The degree to which estimated performance becomes reality Scholastic Aptitude Test CGPA
  33. 33. Reliability • Measures whatever it is measuring consistently • A measuring instrument can be reliable without being valid • To be reliable, a measuring instrument must be valid
  34. 34. Reliability Coefficients • Test-retest coefficients • Alternate forms coefficients • Internal-consistency coefficients
  35. 35. Reliability Coefficients • Test-retest coefficients – Coefficient of stability – Consistency of subjects’ scores over time – Administer a test to the same group of individuals on two occasions – Correlate the paired scores, r
  36. 36. Reliability Coefficients • Alternate forms coefficients – Coefficient of equivalence – Consistency of subjects’ scores on two equivalent tests – Administer two tests (a test and its equivalent) to the same group of individuals – Correlate the paired scores, r
  37. 37. Reliability Coefficients • Internal-consistency coefficients – To determine whether all the items in a test are measuring the same thing – Administer a test to a group of individuals – SPSS: • Analyze  Scale  Reliability Analysis  Alpha, α – Minimum reliability?
  38. 38. Executing research procedure (+ data collection) Directly administered questionnaires • Questionnaire is administered to a group of people at a certain place • Where & When? Mailed Questionnaires • Cover letter (mail/e-mail) – Brief & neat – Explain the purpose of the study – Include your contact number , mailing address and e-mail address • Self-addressed stamped envelope (mail/e-mail)

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