IONIC LIQUIDS

PhD student in Chemistry
31 de May de 2023
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
IONIC LIQUIDS
1 de 24

Más contenido relacionado

La actualidad más candente

Conducting polymers By Dheeraj KumarConducting polymers By Dheeraj Kumar
Conducting polymers By Dheeraj KumarDheeraj Anshul
Green solvents pptGreen solvents ppt
Green solvents pptKIRAN PATANGE
An approach to green chemistry via microwave radiation. applications of micro...An approach to green chemistry via microwave radiation. applications of micro...
An approach to green chemistry via microwave radiation. applications of micro...Sheama T
Application of ionic liquids in pharmaceuticalsApplication of ionic liquids in pharmaceuticals
Application of ionic liquids in pharmaceuticalsMuhammad Mudassir
Synthesis of ionic liquidsSynthesis of ionic liquids
Synthesis of ionic liquidsalfachemistry
Ultrasonic reactions [autosaved]Ultrasonic reactions [autosaved]
Ultrasonic reactions [autosaved]MadhuraDatar

Similar a IONIC LIQUIDS

000aa272839ae4db901889e3e8faa286000aa272839ae4db901889e3e8faa286
000aa272839ae4db901889e3e8faa286Quocphong Nguyen
MAKENDRAN CMAKENDRAN C
MAKENDRAN CMakendran Chandrakasu
Green chemistry nimishaGreen chemistry nimisha
Green chemistry nimishachemistrymespni
Green chemistryGreen chemistry
Green chemistryharsha chatrath
Green chemistryGreen chemistry
Green chemistrysingh Vik17
Treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewater by wet ai...Treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewater by wet ai...
Treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewater by wet ai...Muhammad Moiz

Último

Automated engineering of domain-specific metamorphic testing environmentsAutomated engineering of domain-specific metamorphic testing environments
Automated engineering of domain-specific metamorphic testing environmentsPablo Gómez Abajo
nasa.pdfnasa.pdf
nasa.pdfCarlotaChiarroni
Evidence of evolution Evidence of evolution
Evidence of evolution NajlaaJaffarali
Plant Research ReagentsPlant Research Reagents
Plant Research ReagentsTokyo Chemicals Industry (TCI)
microcontroller.pptxmicrocontroller.pptx
microcontroller.pptxAdarsh College, Hingoli
Plant Growth RegulatorsPlant Growth Regulators
Plant Growth RegulatorsAshutoshKumar13713

IONIC LIQUIDS

Notas del editor

  1. HMPA (hexamethylphosphoric triamide) are replaced by DMI (1,3-dimethyl-2- imidazolinone). Chemists should focus on using molecular level design to develop products that finally degrade into hazardless substances when released into the environment. For example, a recent study on the chemical storage of cyclopentadiene describes the need for storage under cold conditions and immediate usage. Cyclopentadiene is known to spontaneously dimerize exothermically. “atom economy” was developed by B.M. Trost of Standford University to evaluate the efficiency of chemical transformations.
  2. Imidazolium, pyridinium, ammonium, phosphonium, thiazolium, pyrazolium, pyrrolidinium, oxazolium, sulphonium tetrachloroaluminate, hexafluorophosphate, tetrafluoroborate (inorganic) and alkylsulfate, alkylsulfonate, p-toluene sulfonate (tosylate), trifluoroacetate (organic)
  3. The hygroscopic nature of AlCl3 based ILs has delayed the progress in their use in many applications since they must be prepared and handled under inert gas atmosphere. Thus, the synthesis of air and water stable ILs, which are considered as the second generation of ILs, attracted further interest in the use of ILs in various fields. these ILs are water insensitive; however, the exposure to moisture for a long time can cause some changes in their physical and chemical properties
  4. This step is generally followed by an acidbase neutralization or metathesis of the resulting halide salt with a Group 1A metal, ammonium, or silver salt of the desired anion to afford the IL, together with a stoichiometric amount of by-product (HX or MX, respectively) which must subsequently be removed
  5. They are immiscible with a number of organic solvents and provide a non-aqueous, polar alternative for two phase systems, this has been used to effect total catalyst recovery in a number of transition metal catalyzed reactions. Hydrophobic ionic liquids can also be used as immiscible polar phase with water. They have good solubility of gases, e.g. H2, CO and O2, which makes them attractive solvents for catalytic hydrogenations, carbonylations, hydroformylations, and aerobic oxidations. The increase in anion size leads to a decrease in melting point.
  6. . Kabalka et al. have reported this reduction using trialkylborane in which bmimBF4, emimBF4, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (emimPF6) are used as solvents.9a) For example, when benzaldehyde was reduced by tributylborane in emimPF6, the reaction proceeded rapidly at 100 dgreeC to give the product in high yield. Although long reaction time is needed comparatively, the product can be obtained even at room temperature.
  7. In the asymmetric hydrogenation of C-C double bond using homogeneous chiral transition metal complexes, the recovery of the catalyst and the seperation of the products are often troublesome. reagents are allowed to react in a two phase system of an ionic liquid and an alcohol.
  8. Stille reaction is a useful reaction where an organotin compound and an electrophilic reagent are reacted to form a C-C bond under mild condition in the presence of palladium catalyst. In the reaction of vinyltributyltin and iodocyclohexenone in an ionic liquid, the product can be extracted with ether and te catalyst is retained in the ionic liquid. The ionic liquid and the catalyst can be reused as they are. This ionic liquid/catalyst phase is air and moisture stable and so can be used after a long storage without loss in activity.
  9. As described above, a variety of reactions utilizing ionic liquids have been conducted, and the improvement of yields and the recovery and reuse of solvents have been reported. Furthermore, they are also applied to alkylations,13) allylations,14) epoxidations,15) cycloadditions,16) hydroesterifications,17) and reactions using supercritical CO2,18) in which they are reported to be effective. Ionic liquids are used not only as reaction solvents but also reported in electrochemical applications as the electrolyte of a secondary battery, due to their high ionic conductivity. Ionic liquids are attracting attention as environmentally-friendly excellent solvents, because they are safe, easy to separate and purify from the products, recyclable as solvents, and often can be reused with the catalyst.
  10. DESs contain large, nonsymmetric ions that have low lattice energy and hence low melting points. They are usually obtained by the complexation of a quaternary ammonium salt with a metal salt or hydrogen bond donor (HBD). The charge delocalization occurring through hydrogen bonding between for example a halide ion and the hydrogen-donor moiety is responsible for the decrease in the melting point of the mixture relative to the melting points of the individual components. These liquids were termed deep eutectic solvents to differentiate them from ionic liquids which contain only discrete anions. DESs have several advantages over traditional ILs such as their ease of preparation, and easy availability from relatively inexpensive components (the components themselves are toxicologically well-characterized, so they can be easily shipped for large scale processing); they are, however, in general less chemically inert.