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Sriram M (FEM21004).pptx

  1. FT – 549 – Recent Trends in Fermentation Technology PROBIOTICS IN VARIOUS FOODS: FERMENTED PRODUCTS BY SRIRAM M (FEM21004) M. Tech in Food Engineering and Technology Department of Food Engineering and Technology Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam
  2. Definitions The World Health Organization defines that –  Common definition – Probiotics defined as micro-organisms that have a beneficial effects on the host intestinal microbial balance.  Probiotics organisms are the microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organisms.  A bacterial strains that -  The most common type of these beneficial bacteria are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Probiotics as “live micro-organisms which, when administrated adequate amounts, confer health benefits on hosts” • Survive stomach acid and bile • Adhere in intestinal lining • Grows and establish temporary resistance in intestine • Import health benefits
  3. History of Probiotics Year Authors and their discovery/finding 1857 Louis Pasteur discovered lactic acid bacteria (Potential benefits of Lactobacillus) 1900 Moro described the Bacillus acidophilus 1905 Russian noble prize winner and father of modern immunology, Metchnikoff Elie, a scientist at the Pasteur Institute was the first conceptualize the term “Probiotics” 1907 Metchnikoff proposed that the acid producing bacteria in fermented milk products could prevent “fouling” in the large intestine (Health benefits of Lactic acid bacteria) 1965 Lilley and Stillwell coined the term “ Probiotics” 1980’s Fuller establishes first definition of probiotics – A live microbial feed supplement beneficially affects host micro-organisms by improving its intestinal microbial balance 1991 Henry Tissier isolated the Bifidobacterium The root of the word ‘Probiotics’ comes from the Greek word Pro means ‘Promoting’ and biotic means ‘Life’. Metchnikoff Elie (1846-1926) Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
  4. Characteristics of Probiotics Probiotic micro-organisms are:  Able to survive the passage through the digestive system  Able to attach to the intestinal epithelia and colonize  Able to maintain good viability  Able to utilize the nutrients and substrates in a normal diet  Non-pathogenic and non-toxic  Capable of exerting a beneficial effect on the host  Stability of desired characteristics during processing, storage and transportation  Anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic & immunostimulatory Advantages  Producing lactic acid: lowers the pH of the intestine and inhibits bacterial villains such as E. coli, Salmonella & Clostridium.  Aid absorption of minerals, especially calcium, due to increased intestinal acidity.  Produce a wide range of antimicrobial substance acidophilin and bacitracin etc. helps to control pathogenic bacteria  Acts as barrier to prevent harmful bacteria from colonizing the intestine Mode of action of Probiotics  Production of inhibitory compounds  Competition for chemical/available energy  Enhancement of the immune response  Improvement in water activity  A source of macro and micro-nutrients Mechanism of action of Probiotics
  5. Most common Probiotics strains Types of Lactobacillus species Types of Bifidobacterium species Streptococcus species
  6. Probiotics Food Products Dairy Probiotic Products  Fermented milks and yogurt (bio-yogurt) probiotic products.  Ice-cream and frozen probiotic products.  Cheese probiotic products. Non-dairy Probiotic Products  Fruits and vegetable probiotic products.  Cereals and soya based probiotic products.  Meat probiotics products.
  7. Dairy Probiotic Products Fermented milk and yogurt (bio-yogurt) probiotic products  Fermented milks refers to those milk which have been made by employing selected micro-organisms to develop the characteristics flavor and/or body and texture.  Types: Natural butter milk, cultured buttermilk, Acidophilus milk, Bulgarian buttermilk, Kumiss, Kefir, Yoghurt and Dahi.  Starter Propagation: Starter species most commonly used in the industry are: Str. lactis, Str. diacetilactis, Leuc. Citrovorum and Leuc. dextranicum. Natural Buttermilk This is a by products of churning cream for butter making. Ripened cream which undergoes a clean, lactic fermentation is usually preferred. In Indian condition, a country buttermilk obtained as a by-products of churning whole milk curd for production of country butter.
  8. Cultured Buttermilk  This is obtained by inoculation and incubation of pasteurized skim milk with lactic starter.  Cream is a starting substrate, butter is normally made by churning the cream that has been sourced by lactic acid bacteria.  Sour cream uses Str. cremoris or Str. lactis to producing lactic acid and Leuc. cremoris for characteristic flavor.  Ripened cream uses Str. cremoris or S. lactis to producing lactic acid rapidly and Leuc. citrovorum produce the necessary flavors. Acidophilus milk  It is obtained by whole milk or skimmed milk to be fermented with a culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus.  It is claimed that acidophilus milk has therapeutic and health- promoting properties.  It has as an overall beneficial effect on people especially those suffering from frequent diarrhoea and intestinal gas.  When this milk is consumed, the beneficial bacteria was activated in the worm stomach and intestinal tract.
  9. Bulgarian Buttermilk  Bulgarian sour milk comes under the category of yoghurts which contain live bacteria. It is consider as best probiotic food.  Usually, a pure single strain of Lact. bulgaricus is propagated for product manufacturing.  Now-a-days, It is prepared by combination of two strains such as Lact. bulgaricus and Str. Thermophilus.  This finished product is characterized by a higher acidity (1.2- 1.5%) Kumiss  This is a lactic acid-alcohol fermented milk (made from mare’s milk), Originated in Russia.  The culture consists of Lact. bulgaricus or acidophilus.  Kumiss (2.5%) has a higher alcohol content than kefir.  The first incubation period is followed by the addition of yeast and a second incubation period.
  10. Kefir  This is originated in the Caucasian Mountain.  It is made with fermenting agent called ‘Kefir grains’ which contains Str. lactis, Betabacterium caucasicum, kefir bacilli and lactose fermenting yeasts.  It is a self-carbonated beverage containing 1% lactic acid and 1% alcohol. Yogurt  Yogurt, as a fermented milk product, is one of the most popular food carriers for the delivery of probiotic.  Yogurt has long been recognized as a product with many desirable effects for consumers, and it is also important that most consumers consider yogurt to be ‘healthy’, add to that incorporation of probiotic bacteria, such as L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, into yogurt may add extra nutritional and physiological values. Yogurt is a fermented milk product that has been prepared traditionally by allowing milk to ferment at 42–45°C.  Modern yogurt production is a well-controlled process that utilizes ingredients of milk, milk powder, sugar, fruit, flavors, colorings, emulsifiers, stabilizers, and standard pure cultures of LAB (Str. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus) to conduct the fermentation process. S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus exhibit a symbiotic relationship during fermentation process of yogurt, with the ratio between the species changing constantly. Types of yogurt Natural set yogurt Stirred yogurt Drinkable yogurt
  11. Bio-yogurt  Recently, the Bio-Yogurt products have been formulated with different types of probiotic strains: mainly species of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium include L. acidophilus; L. casei; L. gasseri; L. rhamnosus; L. reuteri; B. bifidum; B. animalis; B. infantis; and B. longum.  Different types of Bio-yogurts are produced by far including plain, stirred, flavored, and fruits added Bio- Yogurts. Dahi  Dahi or curd is a product made by fermenting milk of the cow or buffalo milk with lactic acid bacteria.  The pH of curd is 4.5-4.7 Designation Culture used Sweet dahi Str. lactis Single or in combination Str. diacetilactis with or without Leuc. Str. Cremoris species Sour dahi Same as above, along with L. bulgaricus or Str. Thermophilus or both
  12. Ice-cream and frozen probiotic products  Ice-cream is a frozen dairy product, consists of a mixture of components, include, milk, flavoring, sweeteners, stabilizers, and emulsifiers agents.  During the last few decades, new type of the ice-cream products have been introduced to the markets, these products were developed by incorporating probiotic cultures into ice-cream products.  The incorporation of probiotic cultures into ice-cream resulted in adding value to the ice-cream product and being considered as a functional product, in addition to being a rich food from the nutritional point of view, containing dairy based material, vitamins and minerals in its composition.  As a result to the composition/structure, manufacturing procedures, and storage conditions, ice-cream and frozen dairy desserts demonstrated great potential for use as vehicles for probiotic cultures. General steps involved in probiotic ice-cream manufacturing Mixing of Ingredients (Milk, milk powder, sugar, emulsifiers, stabilizers) Pasteurization Cooling around 37–40°C for the soured ice- cream The freeze-dried starter cultures (usually yoghurt cultures) The probiotic cultures is added Cooling and keeping the mixture at 4◦C for 24h for the maturation Probiotics Ice-cream is produced Storage and transport Probiotic micro-organisms in ice-cream L. acidophilus; Bifidobacterium animalis; B. lactis; L. johnsonii; L. rhamnosus; L. agilis; Bifidobacterium longum; Bifidobacterium lactis; L. paracasei; Bifidobacterium bifidum; L. gasseri & L. reuteri
  13. Amul Prolife Sugar Free Probiotic Wellness Frozen Dessert Now with the changing trends, Amul has introduced first time in India – Amul pro-life sugar free probiotic wellness frozen dessert: Low fat low calorie  It has been made by reduced fat content and sugar replacement with the combination of low calorie sweetener (Fructo-oligosaccharides and sucralose) denotes that the probiotic compounds has the most beneficial effects on probiotic stability.  These sweetener has very low glycemic index because they sparingly gets digested by digestive enzymes in stomach and small intestine.  Low Fat: Amul pro-life sugar free delight is containing 50% less fat than the normal ice-cream.  Low Calorie: Sugar replaced with low calorie sweetener.  Available in five different flavor – Vanilla, chocolate, strawberry, fresh litchi and shahi anjir.
  14. Amul Prolife Probiotic Wellness Ice-cream Again, Amul has launched, India’s First Probiotic Ice-cream aimed at the total health conscious of consumers.  Available in five different flavor – Vanilla, chocolate, strawberry, fresh litchi and shahi anjir. Frozen Yogurt  Frozen yogurt is generally referred to as the frozen ice milk processing a typical yogurt flavour.  In United states, frozen yogurt is a blend of 90% ice-cream, 10% plain yogurt with pH is around 6.  Frozen yogurt in Netherlands must contain at least 70% yogurt and the pH is less than 5.0. On the other hand, Australia requires in production of frozen yogurt with greater than 45% yogurt and the pH should be less than 4.5.  In recent years, frozen yogurt has become the base for development of other innovative products such as frozen flavoured yogurt dessert, frozen yogurt novelties on a stick or sandwiches.  Probiotic organisms such as Bifidobacterium spp and L. acidophilus have been successfully added into frozen yogurt.
  15. Cheese Probiotic Products  Cheese means the product obtained by draining after the coagulation of milk with a harmless milk coagulating agents, under the influences of harmless bacterial cultures.  During production, the milk is usually acidified and adding the enzymes rennet causes coagulation.  Cheese is a concentrated form of two milk components – Milk protein (casein) and milk fat. Types of cheese and micro-organisms involve 1. Soft cheese – Str. cremoris; Penicillum camemberti 2. Semi soft cheese – Lactococcus lactis; Brevibacterium linens 3. Hard cheese – L. casei; L. plantarum 4. Semi hard cheese - L. casei; Str. cremoris 5. Fresh cheese– Str. sp 6. Blue cheese– Penicillum roqueforti; Lactococcus lactis 7. Processed cheese (fungi or fungal spores used during ripening
  16. Classification of cheese
  17. Example of Probiotic cheese Probiotic cheddar cheese  Cheddar cheese has a great potential as a probiotic ‘functional food’.  Currently, these are the probiotic strains including L. acidophilus; L. casei; B. longum; L. paracasei and B. lactis were examined as potential candidate for incorporation in Cheddar cheeses.  These strains have been selected based on their acid and bile tolerance, adhesion to intestinal cell line, anticarcinogenic properties, oxygen sensitivity and ability to modify gut microflora of human subjects.  In general, a probiotic cheese should have the same performance as a conventional cheese: the incorporation of probiotic bacteria should not imply a loss of quality of the product. Manufacture of Probiotic Cheddar cheese (Flow diagram of manufacturing)
  18. Non-dairy Probiotic Products Fruits and Vegetables Probiotic Products  Fruits and vegetables are considered healthy foods, as they contain several beneficial nutrients, such as minerals, vitamins, dietary fibers, and antioxidants. Unlike dairy products, fruits and vegetables lack allergens, lactose, and cholesterol, which adversely affect certain segments of the population.  Moreover, recent technologies advances have made alterations to some structural characteristics of fruits and vegetables matrices by modifying food components in a controlled way such as pH modification, and fortification of culture media, that might make fruits and vegetables ideal substrates for probiotic bacteria delivery to human  Several type of probiotic fruits and vegetables products have been developed such as fruits and vegetables juices, dried fruits, fermented vegetables, and vegetarian deserts.  Wide range of probiotic strains, mainly species of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium such as L. acidophilus; L. casei; L. paracasei; L. rhamnosus GG; L. plantarum; L. fermentum and B. bifidum have been widely used in the development of many fruit and vegetable products, specially juice products, include orange, pineapple, cranberry, cashew apple, tomato, cabbage, beet and carrot juices. Gundruk Sinki Khalpi Soidon
  19. Examples of traditional fermented fruits and vegetables, which are used in various parts of Asian subcontinent
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  22. Cereal probiotic products  Cereals have complex nutrient composition and are being consumed on a daily basis all over the world as one of the staple foods.  Benefit of consuming fermented cereal based foods is the availability of dietary fiber and presence of non-digestible carbohydrates like oligosaccharides can act as a probiotic which can stimulate the growth of probiotic LAB.  Cereal grains like maize, sorghum, millet, oats, barley, wheat and rye are being used for this purpose.  Fermentation of cereals increase the bioavailability of minerals such as phosphorous, iron and zinc due to the action of microbial enzymes such as phytases, or due to the organic acids produced during fermentation of cereals.  Commercial cereal based probiotic products includes cereal-based puddings; Rice-based yogurt; Oat-based drink; barley, and malt based; Yosa (oat-bran pudding); Mahewu (fermented maize beverage) Maize-based beverage  Examples of the traditional non-dairy cereal- based fermented beverages include Boza, Tarhana, Kishk, Chicha, Kisra, Kenkey…etc. Cereal and soya based probiotic products
  23. Soya based probiotic products  Soya, the most important legume in the traditional Asian diet, is rich in high-quality protein. The products of soybean play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as menopausal disorder, cancer, atherosclerosis, and osteoporosis. Soya probiotics products include, soymilk, soy-based yogurt, vegetarian frozen desert, fermented soy tempeh, and soy cheese, are a good substrate for the growth of probiotic bacteria.  Soy yogurts were prepared with a yogurt starter in conjunction with either the probiotic bacteria L. johnsonii, L. rhamnosus GG or human derived Bifidobacterium.  Probiotic frozen vegetarian soy desserts were developed with the incorporation of L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei ssp. paracasei, Saccharomyces boulardii and B. lactis.  The soy cheese was made from soymilk fermented with soy cheese bacterial starter cultures and L. rhamnosus.
  24. Meat probiotic products  Meat is a highly nutritious food with a high degree of nutrients bioavailability and consumers have a high degree of preference for its taste, flavor, and texture. Meat had shown an excellent vehicle for probiotics as a result to meat composition and structure. Meat was found to have a protection effect on LAB against the lethal action of bile.  The most common processed probiotic meat products is the dry fermented sausages without heating.  A raw cured sausage is a mixture of different meat grades preserved by curing, stuffed into casings and microbiologically fermented with salt, nitrate or nitrite, sugar and spices (mostly garlic and black pepper) added.  Salami-type raw cured sausages are a wide group of products which differ in raw material composition, ripening time, external appearance and flavor. The original recipe for the salami-type raw cured sausage, initially made from donkey meat, was developed in Italy Lactic acid bacteria: L. plantarum; L. sake; L. pentosus; L. casei; L. curvatus; L. alimentarius; Pediococcus acidilacti; Pediococcus pentosaceus. Gram-positive cocci: Staphylococcus carnosus; Staphylococcus xylosus; Micrococcus varians. Yeasts: Debaryomyces hansenii; Candida famata. Moulds: Penicillium nalgiovense; Penicillium camamberti; Penicillium chrysogenum Types of fermented meat products Hams Loins Sausage
  25. Examples of potential utilization of probiotic bacteria in meat products