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Open Smart Cities in Canada: Webinar 2

  1. Open Smart Cities in Canada: Webinar 2 Presented by: Jean-Noe Landry (Open North) & Dr Tracey P. Lauriault (Carleton University) & Rachel Bloom (Open North) Content Contributors: David Fewer CIPPIC, Mark Fox U. of Toronto, Stephen Letts (RA Carleton U.) Project Name: Open Smart Cities in Canada Date: December 14, 2017
  2. Welcome Introductory remarks Jean-Noe Landry, Executive Director, Open North Webinar 2 includes: 1. Summary of Webinar 1: E-Scan and Assessment of Smart Cities in Canada (listen at: ) 2. Situating smart cities amongst current digital practices 3. Towards guiding principles for Open Smart Cities 4. Examples of international best practices from international cities 5. Observations & Next Steps Webinar Presenters: Rachel Bloom, Open North Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  3. Open North Founded in 2011, OpenNorth is Canada’s leading not-for-profit organization specialized in open data and civic technology. Focus: inclusive, innovative, and dynamic open data ecosystems Expertise: open smart and resilient cities data standards and life cycle management open data policy, licenses, and governance data user needs identification and stakeholder engagement strategy and planning Approach: global/local, multi-stakeholder, inter-jurisdictional, capacity building, maturity modeling, applied research Networks: Open Data Charter, Open Government Partnership, International Open Data Conference, Global Initiative on Fiscal Transparency, Open Contracting Partnership, Canadian Multi-stakeholder Forum
  4. Open Smart Cities in Canada Project Funded by: GeoConnections Lead by: Open North Project core team: Rachel Bloom & Jean-Noe Landry, Open North Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, Carleton University David Fewer, Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic (CIPPIC) Dr Mark Fox, University of Toronto Research Assistants Carleton University Carly Livingstone Stephen Letts Project collaborators: Expert Smart City representatives from the Cities of: 1. Edmonton 2. Guelph 3. Montréal 4. Ottawa Collaborators include experts from the provinces of: 1. Ontario 2. British Columbia
  5. 1. Summary Webinar 1
  6. Webinar 1 E-Scan & Assessment of Smart Cities in Canada E-scan identified smart city makers smart city components Assessment of smart city strategies: Cities of Edmonton, Guelph, Montreal, and Ottawa governance structures practices relate to open data geospatial data Procurement Conclusion
  7. Smart City Challenge Launched November 2017 Municipalities, regional governments, & Indigenous communities Community not-for-profit, private sector company, or expert $300 million Smart Cities Challenge in 2017 Budget
  8. 2. Situating Open Smart Cities
  9. Data & Technology are considered as more than the unique arrangement of objective and politically neutral facts & things & they do not exist independently of ideas, techniques, technologies, systems, people and contexts regardless of them being presented in that way.
  10. Smart City Smart City Think Tanks Consulting Firms Alliances & Associations Civil Society AcademicProcurement Guides, Playbooks & Practices Indicators Cities Vendors Standards Organizations
  11. Smart City Components Smart Infrastructure Smart Buildings Smart Mobility Smart Technology Smart Energy Smart Citizens Smart Governance Smart Education Smart Economy Smart City Like Concepts: Safe City Healthy City Accessible City Resilient City Sharing city Smart city in the public interest Open Smart City
  12. Smart City Data Sensor, Algorithm & AI derived Big Real-time System wide & component focused Centrally stored and cloud-based In platforms with device lock-ins Proprietary Tied to operations Applied to operational decision making and maybe planning
  13. Internet of Things Security & privacy vulnerabilities (hacking) E-waste – cost, short shelf life Mission creep - potential Surveillance / dataveillance potential Ownership / procurement Repair – DRM Device lock in Archiving - the lack thereof Reuse – unintended purposes Sustainability & maintenance & management Interoperability – the lack therefor Standards – emerging
  14. Current Digital Practices Smart city strategies are being created as stand alone institutions It is suggested that open smart cities should be aligned and integrated with a number of other open & digital practices We will discuss smart cities in the context of the following practices Digital Strategies Open Government Open Data Open Science Open Platforms IoT/Smart Cities/Precision Agriculture
  15. Digital Strategies Delivering faster, better and ‘consistently good’ (ON) government services online to citizens (E- Government) web bases government enterprise services for public servants/administrators Providing greater and easier access to government information and resources on the multiple devices and platforms (Fed.) Enterprise-wide alignment and cost-effective use of information resources, and to promote and sustain a culture of innovation (NB)
  16. Open Science Smart Cities Open Platform Open Data Open Government Digital Strategies YesNo Maybe LikelyUnlikely Digital Strategies Precision Ag.
  17. Open Government “is about making government more accessible to everyone. This means giving greater access to government data and information to the …public and the businesses community” “is about creating a more open and transparent government for the people of…” “foster a global culture of open government that empowers and delivers for citizens, and advances the ideals of open and participatory 21st century government. Values Access Openness Transparency Participation Canada is the Co-Chair of the OGP for 2018-2019 Province of Ontario Joined OGP in 2016
  18. Canada’s Open Government Action Plan Commitments
  19. OGP Participation and Co-Creation Public participation Principles 1.those who are affected by a decision have a right to be involved in the decision-making process. 2.public's contribution will influence the decision. 3.recognizing and communicating the needs and interests of all participants, including decision makers. 4.involvement of those potentially affected by or interested in a decision. 5.seeks input from participants in designing how they participate. 6.provides participants with the information they need to participate in a meaningful way. 7.communicates to participants how their input affected the decision.
  20. Canadian Civil Society Open Government Recommendations 1. Lead by Example 2. Active and proactive participation by politicians and civil servants at all levels 3. Clarify the Message 4. Go Beyond Compliance 5. Translate open government to other policy areas 6. Reinforce the relationship with Canadian civil society organizations
  21. Open Science Digital Strategies Open Platform Open Government YesNo MaybeUnlikely Open data Smart Cities/ Precision Ag Open Government Likely
  22. Open Data Open Definition Summary: Knowledge is open if anyone is free to access, use, modify, and share it — subject, at most, to measures that preserve provenance and openness. This essential meaning: matches that of “open” with respect to software as in the Open Source Definition and is synonymous with “free” or “libre” as in the Free Software Definition and Definition of Free Cultural Works. 1.1 Open License or Status 1.2 Access 1.3 Machine Readability 1.4 Open Format
  23. International Open Data Charter “digital data that [are] made available with the technical and legal characteristics necessary for [them] to be freely used, reused, and redistributed by anyone, anytime, anywhere” Open North is one of the international stewards of the Open Data Charter OpenNorth forthcoming study on Charter TBSC is on the Advisory Board Endorsed in Canada by IDRC Adopted by: City of Edmonton Government of Ontario
  24. Open Data Standards Domain-specific: Transit (e.g., GTFS), Service Requests (e.g., Open311), Procurement Information (e.g., Open Contracting), International Aid (e.g., AITI), and others… Linked Open Data (e.g., RDF, DCAT, SPARQL) Open Corporates
  25. Open Standards An open standard is one that 1. is created in an open, international, participatory industry process; 2. is freely distributed and openly accessible; 3. does not discriminate against persons or groups; and 4. ensures that the specification and license are technology neutral (its use must not be predicated on any proprietary technology or style of interface). Open Specification A document written by a consortium, vendor or user that specifies a technological area with a well-defined scope, primarily for use by developers as a guide to implementation. A specification is not necessarily a formal standard.
  26. Open GovernmentOpen Science Digital Strategies Open Platform Open Data YesNo MaybeUnlikely Precision Ag/ IoT Open Data Likely Smart Cities
  27. Open Science “Open Science is the practice of science in such a way that others can collaborate and contribute, where research data, lab notes and other research processes are freely available, under terms that enable reuse, redistribution and reproduction of the research and its underlying data and methods.”
  28. Precision Ag. Digital Strategies Open Science Open Platform Open Source Citizen Science Open Government Open Science YesNo MaybeUnlikely Open Data Likely Smart Cities
  29. Open Platforms Federal Geographic Data Platform Comprehensive collection & sharing of authoritative data Search, discovery, access, & visualization tools built once & reused many times, search once and find everything Common web-based environment enabling data integration, analysis, & visualization to support informed decision-making Shared governance & management of geospatial assets and capabilities, through operational standards & policies
  30. Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure Principles 1. Open: enables better decision making, the CGDI is based on open, barrier-free data sharing and standards that allow users to exchange data. 2. Accessible: allows users to access data and services seamlessly, despite any complexities of the underlying technology. 3. Evolving: the network of organizations participating in the CGDI will continue to address new requirements and business applications for information and service delivery to their respective users. 4. Timely: the CGDI is based on technologies and services that support timely or real-time access to information. 5. Sustainable: is sustained by the contributions of the participating organizations and broad user community and through the infrastructure’s relevance to these groups. 6. Self-organizing the CGDI enables various organizations to contribute geospatial information, services and applications, and guide the infrastructure’s development. 7. User and community driven emphasizes the nurturing of and service to a broad user community. These users, including Canadians in general, will drive the CGDI’s development based on user requirements. 8. Closest to source maximizes efficiency and quality by encouraging organizations closest to source to provide data and services. Thereby eliminating duplication and overlap. 9. Trustworthy is continually enhanced to protect sensitive and proprietary data. The CGDI offers this protection through policies and mechanisms that enable data to be assessed for quality and trusted by users. Source: : 2012, Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure Vision, Mission and Roadmap - The Way Forward DOI:10.4095/292417
  31. Digital Strategies Open Data Open Science Open Platform Open Government Open Platforms YesNo MaybeUnlikely Smart Cities/ Precision Ag/ IoT Likely
  32. Data-Driven, Networked Urbanism Cities that are “instrumented and networked, their systems interlinked and integrated, and vast troves of big urban data are being generated and used to manage and control urban life in real-time” (Kitchin, 2018) Smart cities Digital city Intelligent cities Sustainable cities Responsive cities Sentient cities Sharing cities Cities as a platform Innovative cities programmable cities Connected cities, and Hackable cities Kitchin, Rob, (2015) Data-Driven, Networked Urbanism,
  33. Digital Strategies Open Data Open Science Open Platform Open Source Open Government Smart Cities / Precision Ag. /IoT YesNo MaybeUnlikely Smart Cities/ Precision Ag/ IoT Likely
  34. Open Data Digital Strategy Open Science IoT Smart City / Prec. Ag. Open Platforms Open Source Open Gov’t Mapping openness onto the smart city requires the Integration digital practices Alllevelsofgovernment
  35. 3. Guiding Principles for Open Smart Cities
  36. Openness is also the public interest, rights & ethics. Open Smart Cities
  37. PAS 181:2014 Smart City Framework Operations approach Agreeing a set of principles for the management of data that data owners commit to working towards open data standards & the Five Star Rating Civic engagement Ethics and rights?
  38. A Smart City in the Public Interest Objectives of this report are to provide public servants with ethics guidelines to follow in the development of their smart city plans whereby: 1. Smart cities should favour above all the public interest and public good 2. Reduce possible negative consequences as it pertains to dignity, privacy and democratic life 3. Ensure that there is equitable distribution of the benefits of the smart city and avoid and minimize the possible discriminatory outcomes of the smart city 4. Ensure that the benefits always outweigh the costs
  39. Data Privacy & Security in the Smart City Multi-pronged ecosystems approach that uses a suite of solutions across the life-cycle (procurement to decommissioning) that are not prejudicial to people’s privacy, actively work to minimize privacy harms, curtail data breaches, and tackle cybersecurity issues. 1.Market driven 2.Technical privacy enhancement technologies 3.Policy, regulatory and legally focused revised fair information practice principles, privacy by design, security by design, education and training, 4.Governance and management orientated vision and strategy – smart city advisory board and smart city strategy; oversight of delivery and compliance – smart city governance, ethics and security oversight committee; day-to-day delivery – core privacy/security team, smart city privacy/security assessments, and computer emergency response team.
  40. EU - GDPR General Data Protection Regulation Data Subjects Breach Notification Data Sovereignty Data Portability Right to Access Right to Explanation – Algorithms Not included: Right to Repair Environment Dr Tracey P. Lauriault, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University
  41. Smart Cities – IoT waste & environment Reducing waste & recycling, energy efficiency, toxic batteries, electricity consumption, short shelf life, fair Labour practices, mining of semi- precious metals, ability and right to repair.
  42. 4. Applications of Open Smart City Practices
  43. Assessment of 4 Cities in Canada Last webinar we presented our assessment of smart city strategies and practices at the Cities of Edmonton, Guelph, Montreal, and Ottawa We identified some gaps and considerations for the future related to strategic principles, situated linkages, guidelines for IoT, privacy and security considerations, interoperability standards for opening data, and civic engagement
  44. Chicago (USA)
  45. Chicago - Smart City Leadership: Mayor, CTO, and CDO; DoIT and units for advanced analytics, content management and process modernization, Information Security Office (ISO), and Data Science Team Chicago Technology Plan (2013) and Progress Update (2015) Foundational Strategies: establish next generation infrastructure and ensure participation of all Chicago residents and businesses in the digital economy Growth Strategies: leverage data and new technology to make government more efficient effective, and open; work with civic technology innovators; and attract and retain science, tech, engineering and math professionals Open data drives Plan’s: transparency, accountability, analytics, and economic development Chicago embraces a ‘City-as-a-Platform’ model for enabling products and services to be built out of publicly owned resources
  46. Close Collaboration w/ Civil Society on Digital Literacy Activities Description The City that Networks Report on Smart Chicago Collaborative’s initiative for inclusion. Specifically the Mayor’s Advisory Council on Closing the Digital Divide was challenged to make recommendations to help ensure universal digital access and to improve community, educational, economic and other outcomes. Digital Skills Initiative Technology training across departments and delegate agencies that have received federal funding Connect Chicago Network of 250 places in the city where internet and computer access, digital skills training, and online learning resources are available free of charge Smart Health Centers Training health information specialists in low-income clinics to assist patient in connecting to their own medical records and find reliable information about their own medical conditions Civic User Testing Group (CUTGroup) A project started by the Smart Chicago Collaborative. The project consists of paying residents to test civic website and apps to improve their user experience design. Daniel X. O’Neil and the Smart Chicago Collaborative published a book, entitled The CUTGroup, that covers in detail how to conduct user experience testing, community engagement, and digital skills in one civic tech system. The book is openly available online and licensed under a version of the Creative Commons Attirbution-ShareAlike license. Open City/ Chi Hacknight Volunteers and meet ups to build civic applications with open data Close collaboration with the Smart Chicago Collaborative, a local civic organization that focuses on digital inclusion and technology for public good
  47. IoT: Transparent Engagement Methods & Policies about Privacy and Security
  48. Open Source, Geospatial and Open Data Smart Data Platform OpenGrid
  49. Dublin (Republic of Ireland)
  50. Dublin - Smart City Lead by the four Dublin Local Authorities Smart Dublin (2016) program As Smart City is real time, connected, and data driven Vision: A leading open, connected, and engaged smart city region to live in, work in, and visit Initiative is driven by urban challenges of Smart Mobility, Environment, Smart Government, Smart People, Smart Economy, Smart Living
  51. Context
  52. Tracking Initiatives
  53. Open, Real-Time, Geospatial Data DublinDashboard
  54. Helsinki (Finland)
  55. Helsinki - Smart City Forum Virium Helsinki, centralized office for smart city projects 6Aika Strategy (2014); Smart Helsinki Region 6Aika Strategy: Focus areas: open innovation platforms, open data and interfaces, open participation and customership
  56. 3D Model – Open, Geospatial, Smart
  57. IoT: Openness and Principles Principles: 1. Human centric control and privacy 2. Usable data 3. Open business environment
  58. Applications of MyData Model
  59. E-Estonia and Data Exchange Layer
  60. Innovative and User-Driven Procurement Helsinki Open Innovation Platform Smart Kalasatama District
  61. New York City (USA)
  62. New York City - Smart City Leadership: Mayor’s Office of Technology and Innovation (MOTI), Department of Information Technology & Telecommunications (DoITT), Mayor’s Office of Data Analytics (MODA) (operates as a Center of Excellence) Guided by: Roadmap for the Digital City (2011); Building a Smart and Equitable City (2015); NYC Digital Playbook (2016) Building a Smart and Equitable City: integrated with One New York urban plan and equity is an “explicit guiding principle” Digital Playbook: Principles of equity, inclusivity, accessibility to government information and services; improving public services, user friendliness, and civic engagement and outreach; transparent, secure, and trustworthy data practices; and sharing and collaborating data and platforms to improve City service to residents 12 strategies in the NYC Digital Playbook to uphold these principles
  63. MODA Open Source Analytics Project Library Showcases 3 projects (plans to expand number of projects) Makes transparent the source code behind the analytics and the algorithms that MODA is developing for city services Information is deliberately provided in plain language about the technology landscape and the policy goals that were made as part of that engagement
  64. Open & Geospatial Data Legislation and Standards Local Law 11 of 2012 (Open Data Law) Local Law 108 of 2015 (Geospatial standards) Local Law 107 of 2015 (Data Dictionaries), Local Law 106 of 2015 (Retention and Archiving), Local Law 109 of 2015 (Public Requests), Local Law 110 of 2015 (Timely updates); Local Law 7 of 2016 (FOIL responses including data); and Local Law 8 of 2016 (Examination and Verifications) Proposed bill INT 1696-2017 (Open algorithms)
  65. IoT Guidelines Privacy + Transparency Data Management Infrastructure Security Operations and Sustainability
  66. Summary of Open Smart Cities Practices Ethical and principles-based guidelines, recommendations, and models for IoT and smart cities: Security Privacy Access to personal data Data management Open and geospatial data can be mandated Visualizations Meaningful engagement Partnerships Open data are central to strategies Open: Source Algorithms Platforms APIs Procurement Innovation Standards IoT
  67. Gaps and Challenges Translating ethics and principles into practice Compliance is difficult to monitor Auditing is not carried out Openness & transparency are secondary to open innovation Sustaining meaningful engagement Little discussion of human rights and environment
  68. 5. Conclusion
  69. Preliminary recommendations Integrate digital and open practices onto smart cities: Open government Open data Open science Open IoT Open standards & specification Open platforms Open smart cities include: Rights (GDPR & right to repair) Are in the public interest Ethics (Quebec, NyC, Helsinki, Chicago) Environmental considerations Critical and meaningful public engagement & dialogue not just consultation Ecosystems approach (ASDI and Dublin Report)
  70. Next Steps 1. Open Smart Cities Definition 2. Guidelines and principles for open smart cities
  71. Q&A
  72. Thank you