The Perception of award-winning athletes on the effects of coaching and psychological
behaviour on their performance
Alonzo L. Mortejo
1 College of Education, Bataan Peninsula State University, Central Luzon, Philippines
Correspondence: Alonzo L Mortejo, College of Education, Bataan Peninsula State
University, Central Luzon,Philippines. Tel: 63-935-0045 E-mail: email@example.com
The Perception of award winning athletes on the Role of coaching and psychological
behavior in their performance
The purpose of this study is to explore the factors affecting the award-winning athlete’s
perception of coaching and psychological behavior in relation to their sports performance.
Study focused on 49 award winning athletes and nine coaches in select State University in
the Philippines a member of State colleges and Universities Athletic Association (SCUAA).
A none-experimental survey research design was employed by administrating coaching
behaviour scale for sport (CBS-S) and a psychological performance inventory (PPI) . The
coaching behaviour as perceived by the student athletes included coaching motivation,
coaching style and communicating skills. Psychological behaviour included anxiety,
mental toughness and stress.
Data revealed that all the variables in coaching behaviour and mental toughness greatly
affect the winning athlete’s performance in competition. Slight results differences were
determined among two groups of respondents. . Under the light of the study results
furtherexploration of the factors for winning should be done through qualitative design.
Keywords: coaching behaviour, athletes, sport management
Many factors were investigated among athletes in terms of winning in sport competition
(Mata & Da Silva Gomes, 2013). While some investigations mentioned
variables significantly affecting athletes performances such as home court advantage
(Arruda et al., 2014) considerable amount of experiment significantly correlatingthe
amount of enjoyment, effort exerted and achievement of athletes associated to coaching
behavior(Wang et al 2009, . According to Bali (2014), sports performance is not simply a
product of physiology (for example stress and fitness) and biomechanical (for example
technique factors) but psychological factors also play a crucial role in determining
performance. On the other hand, North (2017), stated that athletes perceive and interpret
their athletic experience based on the leadership they receive, as well as their ability to
perform well. Most people consider a coach’s primary job to be encouraging individual
athletes, as well as the team. Coaches can havea huge impact on athletes’ personal lives and
goals and how they perceive themselves and their community. Individual athletes look to
coaches for leadership and encouragement beyond the sports environment, and this also
carries over to athletic achievements. However previous studies also ask for adding
psychological variables measures in the existing body of knowledge. Due to some conflicts
in some studies confirmatory in the statistical results in terms of connection of coaching
behavior and athletes performance also emerge as one of the recent recommendation in
thefield of coaching management (Aleksic Veljkovic et al., 2019)
This chapter presents the method of research that will be utilized in the collection,
analysis,and interpretation of the data related to the study. Specifically, it includes
methods and techniques of the study, population and sample, research instruments,
construction and validation of the instruments, data gathering procedures and data
processing and statisticaltreatment.
The researchers used the quantitative method study. It involves the research
forrelationships between variables through the use of various measures of statistical
association. It is a procedure in which subjects’ scores on two variables are simply
measured, without manipulation of any variables to determine whether there is a
Population and sample of the study
Sample of the study
Forty one (41) student athletes and nine (9) coaches respondents from select state
university in the Philippines were selected including the 6 Arnis players, 2 Badminton
players, 2 Beach Volleyball players, 2 Chess Players, 6 Dance sports players, 4 Karate do
players, 1 Lawn Tennis player, 13 Swimming players, 5 Taekwondo players and 9 coaches
per mentioned sport event. The research population for this study comprised team and
individual sport athletes and coaches of select state university in the Philippines
Purposive sampling technique was utilized in selecting the respondents. The
researchers collected all of the names of coaches, elite athletes and their specific sport.
The researchers utilized two sets of questionnaires. The kind of questionnaire of
thepresent study is closed-ended questionnaire, five and seven Likert scale items that
would provide data relevant to the question.
The coaching behavior scale for sport (CBS-S) is the Coaching Model by Cote, in which he
defines all important variables that affect the coaches’ work with his athletes and it has a
seven likert scale items. These variables include the behaviors and strategies during
training,competition and organizational settings (Cote 1999, 85.): coaching style, coaching
motivation, mental toughness and communicating skill. The general weighted mean was
analysed and interpreted using the seven-point Likert scale shown below:
Scale Interval Descriptive Equivalent Descriptive
7 6.17 – 7.00 Always Extremely High
6 5.31 – 6.16 Very Often High
5 4.45 - 5.30 Often Slightly High
4 3.59 - 4.44 Fairly Often Moderately
3 2.73 - 3.58 Sometimes Slightly Low
2 1.87 - 2.72 Rarely Low
1 1 - 1.86 Never Extremely Low
The psychological performance inventory (PPI) is the Psychological model by Golby that
defines the important variables that affect the coaches’ work with his athletes. It consists
ofanxiety and stress. The general weighted mean was analysed and interpreted using the
five-point Likert scale shown below:
Scale Interval Descriptive Equivalent Descriptive
5 4.21 - 5.00 Almost Never Extremely Low
4 3.41 - 4.20 Seldom Low
3 2.61 - 3.40 Sometimes Moderately
The significant difference between the perception of the student-athletes and coaching
behavior of the coaches .
Perception of the students and coaching behaviour
Mann-Whitney U 95.000
Exact Sig. (2-tailed) .101
The table shows the significant difference between the perception of the student-athletes
in the coaching behaviour of the their coaches The statistical treatment that was used is
Mann-Whitney U test with an average of .101. This only shows that there is no significant
difference between the perception of the student-athletes and coaches in the coaching
behavior of the trainers. Meanwhile, Veljkovic (2016), stated that the behavior of the
coachdirected towards improving the performance of athletes was higher evaluated by
athletes inindividual sports.
This table presents the variables that are taken singly or in combination greatly affects
theathletic achievement of the student-athletes.
The variables that are taken singly or in combination greatly affect the athletic
achievementof the student-athletes.
Coaching style .331 .040 Significant
Coaching motivation .033 .001 Significant
.073 .030 Significant
Mental toughness .259 .029 Significant
-.194 .185 Not Significant
The table 11 reflects that coaching style greatly affects the athletic achievement compared
toother variables. The beta coefficient value of psychological behavior is not significant
since its correlation is not significant. The coaching style has the highest contribution in
predicting the values of the athletic achievement compared to the other given variables.
According to, Defreese and Smith (2013), here is evidence to show that coaching styles
andbehaviors have a strong influence on motivation and wellbeing of athletes. Studies
have shown that athlete burnout is negatively related to positive social support.
This chapter presents the summary of findings of the study, the conclusions that were
arrived at based on the research output, as well as the recommendations forwarded in
thelight of the conclusion drawn.
Summary of findings
The major findings of the study are summarized as follows:
1. The coaching behavior be described in terms of perception of the coaches
themselvesregarding coaching motivation is “extremely high” with the grand mean of
students’ perception to their coaches is “high” with the grand mean of 6.0311. This only
shows that there is a slight difference between how the coach perceives his coaching
motivation compare to the perception of student-athletes. On the other hand, the
perceptionof the coaches themselves regarding their coaching style is “extremely high”
with the grand mean of 6.6339 while students’ perception regarding to their coaches is
“high” with the grand mean of 5.8189. This only shows that there is a slight difference
between how the coach perceives his coaching style compare to the perceptions of student-
athletes. Lastly, theperception of the coaches themselves regarding their communicating
skills is “slightly high” with the grand mean of 4.6154 while students’ perception to their
coaches is “slightly high” with the grand mean of 5.2932. This only shows that there is no
significant difference between how the coach perceives his communicating skills compare
to the perceptions of student-athletes.
2. The psychological behavior be described in terms of perception of the
coachesthemselves regarding anxiety is “low” with the grand mean of 3.9792 while
perception to their coaches is “moderately” with the grand mean of 3.0811. This only shows
that there is a slight difference between how the coach perceives his communicating skills
compare to the perceptions of student-athletes. On the other hand, the perception of the
coaches themselves regarding their mental toughness is “extremely high” with the grand
mean of 6.5500 while students’ perception regarding to their coaches is “high” with the
grand mean of 6.1947. This only shows that there is a slight difference between how the
coach perceives his mental toughness compare to the perceptions of student-athletes.
Lastly,perception of the coaches themselves regarding their stress is “high” with the grand
mean of4.1042 while students’ perception regarding to their coaches is “moderately” with
the grandmean of 2.9385. This only shows that there is a slight difference between how the
coach perceives his stress compare to the perceptions of student-athletes. This only shows
that there is a slight difference between how the coach perceives his stress compare to the
perceptions of student-athletes.
3. The significant difference between the perception of the student-athletes and the
coaches in the coaching behavior of the trainers was tested. The statistical treatment that
was used is Mann-Whitney U test with an average of .101. This only shows that there is no
significant difference between the perception of the student-athletes and coaches in the
coaching behaviour of the trainers.
4. The coaching style has the highest contribution in predicting the values of the
athleticachievement compared to the other given variables. Therefore, it concludes that
coaching style greatly affects the athletic achievement of the student-athletes compared to
In conclusion, the finding of this study suggests perceptions of award winning athletes
towards their views on the role of coaching behaviour and psychological behaviour in their
sports performance variables such as motivation, coaching style, and communicating skills
which are all under coaching behaviour parameters significantly affected the athletes
sportsperformances in playing. For psychological behaviour, perceptions also suggested
that onlythe mental toughness of the winning athletes significantly influenced their
performances, further exploration of other contributing factors in winning should be
investigated trough qualitative approach to validate the results of this research design.
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