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Research paper on expired multivitamins

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Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of exogenous application of the multivitamin
Elder-Vi...
2
Extended Essay Topic
To explore the use of expired multivitamin and Mineral tablets to enhance plant growth.
Research Qu...
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Table of Contents
Introduction.............................................................................................
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Research paper on expired multivitamins

  1. 1. 1 Abstract The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of exogenous application of the multivitamin Elder-Vit and calcium supplement Shell-Cal with different concentrations the growth of Bamboo plant (Dracaena sanderiana). In addition, the aim was to estimate the optimum concentration of expired Multivitamin or Mineral for plant growth and to take note of any visible anomalies through the experiment. This investigation was carried out with the 3 different concentrations of expired Shell-Cal and Elder-Vit Solution: 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% along with a control experiment of 0% concentration (i.e. distilled water). The plants were watered with these solution over a span a 3 weeks while the change in, number of leaves, length of branch, diameter of stem and length of stem was recorded on the 1st , 7th , 12th and 18th day after the experiment was initiated. I assumed that an external source of vitamins and minerals will definitely benefit plant growth. While a high concentration of would lead to damage of roots as water would leave the roots by ex-osmosis moreover, chances are that there could have been a rise in the toxicity levels of the plants. The plants showed significant improvement in their color, turgidity, and growth rate, and a slight improvement in nutrient content which was measure after about 8 weeks. In contrast, the controlled experiment with only water showed the most deterred growth, supporting the original hypothesis that such minerals can still help growth. Thus, results of this investigation have proved that an exogenous source of expired multivitamins can enhance plant growth with a trend of the lower concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0% showing promising results for both of the expired drugs. From the data collected it has been proved that the 0.5% concentration enhanced most of plant of growth for Elder-Vit and Shell-Call. Word count:297
  2. 2. 2 Extended Essay Topic To explore the use of expired multivitamin and Mineral tablets to enhance plant growth. Research Question What is the effect of the exogenous application of solutions of 3 different concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2%) of expired Shell-Cal Calcium supplement and 3 different concentrations(0.5%, 1% and 2%) of expired Elder-Vit multivitamin tables on the growth of Bamboo, Dracaena sanderiana after measuring the change in, number of leaves, length of branch, diameter of stem and length of stem weekly for a period of 3 weeks?
  3. 3. 3 Table of Contents Introduction.....................................................................................................................................4 Expired OTC drugs....................................................................................................................................................5 Nutrients present in the expired pills used and their role in plant development: ...................................6 Hypothesis .......................................................................................................................................7 VARIABLES ...................................................................................................................................8 Independent:.................................................................................................................................................................8 Dependent:....................................................................................................................................................................8 Controls:........................................................................................................................................................................8 Apparatus........................................................................................................................................9 DATA SET 1: Results with expired Shell-Cal Tablets...................................................................13 Data Tables................................................................................................................................................................13 Parameter 1: Number of Leaves ...........................................................................................................................................................13 Parameter 2: Length of Branch.............................................................................................................................................................16 Parameter 3: Diameter of Stem.............................................................................................................................................................19 Parameter 4: Length of Stem..................................................................................................................................................................22 DATA SET 2: Results with expired Elder- Vit Tablets..................................................................25 Data Tables: ..............................................................................................................................................................25 Parameter 1: Number of leaves.............................................................................................................................................................25 Parameter 2: Length of Branch.............................................................................................................................................................28 Parameter 3: Diameter of Stem.............................................................................................................................................................31 Parameter 4: Length of Stem..................................................................................................................................................................34 Qualitative Data: ...........................................................................................................................37 CONCLUSION..............................................................................................................................38 EVALUATION..............................................................................................................................40 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................42
  4. 4. 4 Introduction As I was born into a family which runs a pharmaceutical company, I have had exposure to the world of drugs since childhood. What bothered me was the fact that I would see ton’s of medicine getting discarded from the company itself, which led me onto the thinking about the incidence of medicine waste amongst individual households and hospitals as well. Statistically, according to the WHO ‘Of the total amount of waste generated by health-care activities, about 80% is general waste.’ It was this horrific fact which made me want to think of ideas to deal with such waste Plants that are deficient in nutrients could use expired multivitamins as a nutrient source. Plant growth and nutrition enhancement is more important now than ever. The population rapidly increases and the quality of the food we eat declines. We can improve that with nutrient-packed food, which is not artificial. Also, a lot of resources are consumed in the production of medicines. We must revise the massive disposal of such resources when a large proportion of them have potential uses. If these vitamins do not have any toxic element and as per the nutrients present in these supplement, further research could be conducted upon which we could suggests hospitals and manufacturers to monitor their expired stock. Having no adverse effects on plant growth and the chemical contents of the plant the results of this implication could be positive for society. This experiment is to help understand how the vitamins in expired dietary supplements and which concentrations of them could be used to enhance plant growth and potentially improve its nutrient content for human consumption.
  5. 5. 5 Since expired supplements do not turn toxic or lose massive potency, this experiment could provide substantial data to commence further research to bring about a change and to adapt this usage on a large scale to recycle expired multivitamins to supplement plant growth and enhance the nutritional value of plants. This could change the way people look at medicine waste management. Expired OTC drugs According to the FDA each multivitamin or mineral supplement has it's shelf life. This span is generally very conservative. Moreover, research shows that expired multivitamins do not turn toxic, they simply lose potency by reacting with the packaging when subjected to high temperatures and moisture. The mineral content however does persist. • Shelcal:tablets; Oral; Calcium (Calcium Carbonate) 625 mg; Vitamin D3 125 IU1 • Edervit: Folic Acid (1.5mg), Vitamin B1(10mg), Vitamin B12(15mcg), Vitamin B2(10mg), NAD(100mg), Zinc Sulphate Monohydrate(3mg), Vitamin C(150mg). 2 1 Medication: Shel-Cal Capsules." Shel-Cal Capsules Drug & Pharmaceuticals. Shel-Cal Capsules Available Forms, Doses, Prices. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2015. 2 Medication: Eldervit Capsules." Eldervit Capsules Drug & Pharmaceuticals. Eldervit Capsules Available Forms, Doses, Prices. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.
  6. 6. 6 Nutrients present in the expired pills used and their role in plant development: 1. Calcium (CaCO3) Is essential for cell wall development, for enzyme activity, metabolism, and nitrate uptake. Weak and spindly plants often indicate the plants are not taking up enough calcium.3 2. Vitamin D3: Helps root formation and seed germination. Studies on the effects of vitamin D3 on two different plants that were not exposed to sunlight show that the vitamin helped cuttings of Populus tremula grow roots and helped seeds of Grand Rapids lettuce, also known as Lactuca sativa, to germinate.4 3. Folic_acid Previous experiments suggest that folic acid and vitamin C enhanced seed vigor and potential seedling performance 4. Nicotinamide: Experiments show that NAD increases the photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates, plant height, leaf number, fresh and dry weights of shoot, and seed yield as well as total soluble sugars, total free amino acids and proline. Nicotinamide inhibited the uptake of Na+ and accelerated the accumulation of essential nutrient ions. Nicotinamide resulted in a significant improvement in physiological and biochemical parameters 3<http://www.puricare.co.za/UserFiles/File/Essential%20Nutrients%20for%20Plant%20Growth.pdf >"Ch3." Encyclopedia of Astrobiology (2011): 282. Web. 27 Oct 2015 4 "The Effects of Vitamins on Plant Growth." LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 02 Sept. 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.
  7. 7. 7 5. Zinc_Sulphate_Monohydrate Used as a fertilizer additive for preventing zinc deficiencies in crops. Important for enzyme activity associated with carbohydrate metabolism in plants. Zinc Sulphate Monohydrate is appropriate for soil applications on zinc, providing a long term supply of zinc to crops.5 6. Methylcobalamin_Cynaobalamin Vitamin B12 is water soluble and relatively tolerable to heat thus is easily available for plant uptake. There are complexes of vitamin B which have proven to assist plant growth. Hypothesis After researching on the positive effect of human vitamins on the growth of plants, about the potency/toxicity of expired multivitamins and based on the information provided in the background, it can be predicted that an exogenous application of expired multivitamin on the Bamboo plant will enable it to grow more effectively as compared to growth with water. A higher concentration of multivitamins could prove to be harmful to the plant as it will cause exosmosis and could also increase the toxicity levels as these expired multivitamins provide excess nutrients or could chemically hinder the metabolic activities in the plants. 5 <www.randsdown.co.nz>Web. 21. OCT 2015
  8. 8. 8 VARIABLES Independent: Expired Shelcal Solution (Exp date: April 2014): 1000ml of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% concentrations each. Expired Elder-Vit Solution (Exp date: April 2014): 1000ml of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% concentrations each. Controls: Dependent: 1. No of leaves No unit (no uncertainty) 2. Length of branch cm(uncertainty= ±0.1cm) 3. Diameter of Stem cm(uncertainty= ±0.1cm) 4. Length of stem cm(uncertainty= ±0.1cm) 5. Color of plant No unit (no uncertainty) 6. Turgidity of the plant No unit (no uncertainty) Variable Why How Age of plant To ensure that the age is not a factor which effects any of our dependent variables By either growing the plants together or by ensure that the flouriest gives you the same aged plants Time To ensure that all the trials are grown for the same amount of time and that all the plants are subject to the expired medicine solution for the same amount of time Make sure that you water and measure all plants at the same time Temperature If there is a drastic change in temperature that may inhibit the plants metabolic activities and hinder the plants growth, effecting out measurements and the experiments results Keep the plants on one, possible temperature regulated room. Make sure there is no condition, or one could keep not of the temperature with a thermometer, Exposure to light If certain plants are subject to more light as compared to the others then there will be change in their growth Make sure that all the plants have enough and equal exposure to light by placing them, mostly outside, or in such a way that they don’t fall under shadow for too long as
  9. 9. 9 Apparatus Variable Why How Volume of solution given This must be controlled as if certain plants are given more or less of the solution then our results will not be accurate Make sure that you stick to the method and give 2 cc of the solutions every two days Size of plant If the plants are the same size at the beginning of the experiments then it will only be easier to compare growth, he amount of surface area for photosynthesis of each plant will also be controlled, not giving any one plant the upper hand Measure the plants length before and keep a small range of size for each trial before using that plant for your experiment Expiry Date of the drug used. Since the medicine used will be the growth factor tested through this experiment, one must make note that the expired date for all the drugs used is the same. If the drugs used have varying expiry date then there could be a higher chance of error. Check the expiry date mentioned on the drug’s packaging. Material Quantity Uncertainty Ceramic Grinder 1 Electronic Balance 1 ± 0.01g 1000ml Beakers 6 ± 50ml 50 ml Measuring Cylinder 1 ± 5ml Glass stirrers 2 Watch glasses 2 Spatulas 2 Bunsen burners 1 2 ml syringes 6 ± 0.5 ml Stopwatch 1 ± 0.01s Bamboo Shoots 17 Expired Shel-Cal 10 strips Expired Elder-Vit 15 strips Distilled water 6000 ml Small glass containers 17 Rule 1 ± 0.1 cm
  10. 10. 10 Preparation of the Solutions: crushed shelcal tablets crushed Elder-Vit Tablets i. Collect 20 strips of each tablet and make sure that they all have the same expiry date. ii. Grind the medicine into fine powder using a manual grinder. iii. Place a watch glass on a digital weighing scale and tare it to obtain a reading of 0.00g iv. Take the powdered medicine using a sptula and place it on the watch glass to measure 5g of it using a digital weighing scale. (+/- 0.1g). v. Pour the measured 5g of powder into 1kg of distilled water for the 0.5% concentrated solution. (label this container as A) vi. Follow the method in step iii, iv and v with 10g of powedered medicine instead, to prepare a solution of 1.0% concentration (label this container as C) vii. Follow the method in step iii, iv and v with 20g of powedered medicine instead, to prepare a solution of 2.0% concentration(label this container as B) Method
  11. 11. 11 Parameters measured Experimental Setup i. When colleting the bamboo plant, ensure that all the shoots are of the same height, age and have been growing in the same medium. ii. Place each individual shoots into small glass containers. Make sure that you have 17 such setups, 5 for each concentration, and 2 control setups. iii. You will have 5 trials of each concentration used. Therefore label the trials for concentration ‘A’ of 0.5% as A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 Do the same for concentration ‘B’ of 1.0% and conc. ‘C’ for 2.0% iv. Label the remaining two containers as ‘Control’ v. Measure and record the initial number of leaves, length of branch, diameter of stem and length of stem using a ruler for each of the plants before initiating the experiment. Initial setup
  12. 12. 12 Watering method i. Water each of the ‘A’ labeled plants every 3 days for 18 days with 2 cc of 0.5% conc. solution using a syringe ( +/- 0.2 cc). Make sure you stir the solution for 30 seconds before watering the plant ii. Water each of the ‘B’ labeled plants every 3 days for 18 days with 2 cc of 1.0% conc. solution using a syringe ( +/- 0.2 cc). Make sure you stir the solution for 30 seconds before watering the plant iii. Water each of the ‘C’ labeled plants every 3 days for 18 days with 2 cc of 2.0% conc. solution using a syringe ( +/- 0.2 cc). Make sure you stir the solution for 30 seconds before watering the plant iv. Water each of the ‘Control’ labeled plants every 3 days for 18 days with 2 cc of distilled water using a syringe ( +/- 0.2 cc). v. Measure the root length, shoot length, diameter of stem, number of leaves were measured on a weekly basis and take note of the qualitative descriptions of the stem, root and leaves. Observe the turgidity by seeing if the stem can easily bend. Do this over a period of 18 days. vi. Measurements can be taken using a rule (+/- 0.1cm) vii. Repeat the above mentioned steps with the second set of expired drugs (Elder-vit)
  13. 13. 13 DATA SET 1: Results with expired Shell-Cal Tablets Data Tables Parameter 1: Number of Leaves Raw data table no.1: showing the number of leaves grown over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Shelcal Solutions Different Concentrations of Shell-Cal Solutions Trial Number of leaves ( no uncertainty) Day 1 Day 7 Day 12 Day 18 Set A : 0.5% A1 7.00 9.00 11.00 13.00 A2 7.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 A3 6.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 A4 8.00 9.00 12.00 13.00 A5 7.00 10.00 11.00 13.00 Set B : 1.0% B1 8.00 10.00 13.00 14.00 B2 7.00 11.00 11.00 13.00 B3 7.00 10.00 12.00 13.00 B4 6.00 10.00 11.00 13.00 B5 7.00 10.00 11.00 13.00 Set C : 25% C1 7.00 9.00 10.00 12.00 C2 7.00 8.00 11.00 13.00 C3 8.00 9.00 11.00 12.00 C4 7.00 10.00 12.00 13.00 C5 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 Control Control1 7.00 9.00 10.00 12.00 Control2 7.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 Processed data table no 2: showing average number of leaves grown and percentage change in the number of leaves grown over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Solutions Concentration Day1 Day7 Day12 Day18 % Change Correlation 0.5% Average 7.00 9.50 11.50 13.00 85.71 0.99Standard Deviation 0.70 0.54 0.54 0.70 1.0% Average 7.00 10.20 11.6 13.20 88.57 0.98Standard Deviation 0.70 0.45 0.89 0.45 2.0% Average 7.2 9.25 10.80 12.30 70.83 1.00Standard Deviation 0.55 0.71 0.84 0.84 Control Average 7.00 9.00 10.00 11.50 64.29 0.99Standard Deviation 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.71
  14. 14. 14 Graph no.1: Average number of leaves affected by bamboos grown in different concentrations of Shell-Cal solution compared with bamboos grown in water over a period of 18 days Graph no.2: Overall % Change of average no. of leaves for bamboos grown in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Sol. 7 9.5 11.5 13 7 10.2 11.6 13.2 7.2 9 10.8 12.2 7 9 10 11.5 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.1 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.7 10.1 10.5 10.9 11.3 11.7 12.1 12.5 12.9 13.3 13.7 1 2 3 4 Averagenumberofleaves No. of days 0.50% 1.00% 2.00% Control 85.71 88.57 70.83 64.29 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 0.5 1.0 2.0 control PecentageChange% Concentration % 1 7 12 18
  15. 15. 15 The 1.0% solution shows the highest (88.57%) change in growth. The results support the claim that the average number of leaves for the Bamboo Plant is positively influenced when grown with the expired Shell-Cal. This evidently proves Shell-Cal (even a minimum concentration of 0.5%) is better than water as it is able to grow more leaves for the Bamboo plant. This could be primarily because the Shell-Cal 500mg itself is such a concentrated medicine and that one pill is required for the dosage of one human, thus a lower concentration should be optimum for the plant, while higher concentrations could prove to affect the osmotic surroundings in the soil. Sample Calculations: 1. Standard Deviation: *done in excel* = STDEV 2. Average Example : 11, 11, 12 ,12 , 11 Sum = 11 + 11+ 12+ 12+ 11 = 57 Sum/ no. of values = 57 / 5 = 11.50 3. Correlation Co-efficient *done in excel* = CORREL
  16. 16. 16 Parameter 2: Length of Branch Raw data table no.3: showing the length of branch grown over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Solutions Different Concentrations of Shell-Cal Solutions Trial Length of Branch (±0.10 cm) Day 1 Day 7 Day 12 Day 18 Set A : 0.5% A1 6.90 9.30 11.00 11.70 A2 6.90 9.50 12.00 12.40 A3 6.80 9.20 10.00 11.40 A4 6.90 9.40 11.00 11.50 A5 6.90 9.60 11.30 11.70 Set B : 1.0% B1 6.80 9.00 9.90 11.50 B2 6.90 9.50 10.00 11.50 B3 6.70 9.00 9.80 11.00 B4 6.80 9.30 10.20 12.00 B5 6.80 9.40 10.60 11.70 Set C : 25% C1 6.90 9.00 9.60 10.40 C2 6.80 9.00 9.80 10.70 C3 6.90 9.00 9.60 10.80 C4 6.70 9.00 9.60 10.70 C5 6.90 9.00 9.60 10.80 Control Control1 6.90 9.10 9.50 10.20 Control2 6.80 9.00 9.30 10.40 Processed data table no 4 : showing average length of branch and percentage change in length of branch over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Solutions Concentration Day1 Day7 Day12 Day18 % Change Correlation 0.5% Average 6.90 9.30 11.00 11.70 69.57 0.97Standard Deviation 0.04 0.16 0.72 0.33 1.0% Average 6.80 9.24 10.10 11.54 69.71 0.98Standard Deviation 0.07 0.23 0.32 0.36 2.0% Average 6.82 9.20 9.65 10.70 56.89 0.96Standard Deviation 0.08 0.40 0.08 0.16 Control Average 6.85 9.05 9.40 10.30 50.36 0.95Standard Deviation 0.07 0.07 0.14 0.14
  17. 17. 17 Graph no. 3: Average length of branch of bamboos grown in different concentrations of Shell-Cal solution compared with bamboos grown in water (control) over a period of 18 days Graph no. 4: Overall percentage change of the average length of branch for bamboos grown in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Sol. 6.9 9.3 11 11.7 6.8 9.4 10.1 11.5 6.8 9.2 9.7 10.7 6.85 9.05 9.4 10.3 6 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8 8.4 8.8 9.2 9.6 10 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 12 12.4 1 2 3 4 Averagelenghtofbranch(cm) no. of days 0.50% 1.00% 2.00% Control 69.57 69.71 56.89 50.36 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 0.5 1.0 2.0 control PecentageChange% Concentration % 7 12 18
  18. 18. 18 One can easily observe that the 1.0% and 0.5% concentration of Shelcal has shown the highest percentage change in the average length of branch for the Bamboo Plant. As evident in graph no.3 the 0.5% concentration grows an average branch length of 11.7cm. whereas the control grows an average branch length of 10.3cm. Significantly, while in graph 3 the longest length shown is by the plant goen in the 0.5% solution, the greaterst ercentage change in height is hown by the plant gorwn in 1.0%. There is a large margin between the high values that the 0.5% and 1.0% concentration and the Control plant’s yeild, suggesting that the plants are better suited in expired shelcal solutions as it enhances the branch length. However on comparing the STDEV of each of these concentrations, it is seen that te values of the control are closer to the mean as it has a STDEV of only ±0.14 whereas the 0.5% concentration has a STDEV of ±0.33 The 0.5% and the 1.0% concentrations show more varying readings than the control. A trend is seen with the 1.0% cocnetration sol as the avergae length of branch is closer the average length of the banboo branches when grown with 0.5% cocentration and the average length of the brahce grwoing with 2.0% (while being lower than the other two concentrations) is higher than the control. This proves that the Shelcl sol effectively increased branch growth. However, the reason why a lower concentraion proved to be more effective is because is because the excess minerals in a high concentration of Shelcal sol could be detrimental to plant growth as it shrinks the root cells due to the highly concentrated area that surrounds the roots.
  19. 19. 19 Parameter 3: Diameter of Stem Raw data table no.5: Showing the diameter of stem grown over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Solutions Different Concentrations of Shell -Cal Solutions Trial Number Diameter of stem cm(±0.10cm) Day 1 Day 7 Day 12 Day 18 Set A : 0.5% A1 0.80 1.00 1.00 1.10 A2 0.80 1.00 1.10 1.20 A3 0.70 0.90 1.00 1.10 A4 0.80 1.00 1.10 1.10 A5 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.20 Set B : 1.0% B1 0.80 1.00 1.10 1.10 B2 0.90 1.10 1.10 1.10 B3 0.70 0.90 1.00 1.10 B4 0.80 1.00 1.00 1.10 B5 0.80 1.00 1.00 1.00 Set C : 25% C1 0.70 0.90 1.00 1.10 C2 0.80 0.90 0.90 0.90 C3 0.80 0.90 0.90 1.00 C4 0.90 1.00 1.00 1.00 C5 0.90 1.00 1.00 1.10 Control Control1 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.00 Control2 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.00 Processed data table no 6 : showing the average diameter of stem and percentage change in the average diameter of stem over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Solutions Concentration Day1 Day7 Day12 Day18 % Change Correlation 0.5% Average 0.78 0.96 1.04 1.14 46.15 0.99Standard Deviation 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 1.0% Average 0.80 10 1.04 1.08 35.00 0.92Standard Deviation 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.04 2.0% Average 0.82 0.94 0.96 1.05 28.05 0.98Standard Deviation 0.08 0.05 0.05 0.08 Control Average 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.00 25.00 0.94Standard Deviation 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  20. 20. 20 Graph no5: Average length of the Diameter of stem affected by bamboos grown in different concentrations of Shell-Cal solution compared with bamboos grown in water over a period of 18 days Graph no. 6: Overall % Change of the average diameter of stem for bamboos grown in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Sol. 0.78 0.96 1.04 1.14 0.8 1 1.04 1.08 0.82 0.94 0.96 1.05 0.8 0.9 1 1 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1 2 3 4 AverageDaimeterofstem(cm) No. of days 0.50% 1.00% 2.00% Control 46.15 35.00 28.05 25.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 0.5 1.0 2.0 control PercentageChange% Concentration % 7 12 18
  21. 21. 21 From the graph no.5 above, it is noticeable that only the 0.5% concentration results in the highest diameter of the stem (1.14cm) whiles the 1.0% concentration, 2.0% concentration and the Control able to produce an average diameter of 1.08cm, 1.06 cm and 1.0cm respectively. Even the % change in the length is shown to be the highest with the 0.5% concentration solution. More so, the difference between these values is very low. i.e, the change in diameter length ranges only from 1.0 – 1.2 cm within the period of 18 days, suggesting that this specific parameter may not be significantly influenced by these minerals at all. The lower standard deviation of around ±0.04 - 0.08 further suggests that the readings barely deviated from the average of the data collected.
  22. 22. 22 Parameter 4: Length of Stem Raw data table no.7: showing the length of stem grown over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Solutions Different Concentrations of Shell -Cal Solutions Trial Number Length of Stem cm(±0.10cm) Day 1 Day 7 Day 12 Day 18 Set A : 0.5% A1 7.50 10.00 10.40 11.00 A2 8.20 10.10 10.60 11.20 A3 8.00 10.00 10.40 11.20 A4 7.80 10.20 10.80 11.50 A5 8.00 10.30 11.00 11.60 Set B : 1.0% B1 6.8 8.8 9.0 10.10 B2 6.8 8.9 9.4 10.50 B3 7.5 9.7 10.3 11.20 B4 7.4 10.0 10.8 11.40 B5 8.0 10.2 11.2 11.80 Set C : 25% C1 8.00 9.60 9.90 10.30 C2 8.00 9.50 9.90 10.40 C3 7.00 8.40 9.50 10.00 C4 7.50 9.20 9.80 10.30 C5 7.70 9.00 9.40 10.00 Control Control1 8.00 9.10 9.70 10.40 Control2 8.00 9.20 9.40 10.40 Processed data table no 8 : showing the average length of stem and percentage change in the average length of stem over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Solutions Concentration Day1 Day7 Day12 Day18 % Change Correlation 0.5% Average 7.90 10.12 10.64 11.30 43.04 0.94Standard Deviation 0.26 0.13 0.26 0.24 1.0% Average 7.3 9.52 10.14 11.00 50.68 0.96Standard Deviation 0.51 0.64 0.93 0.69 2.0% Average 7.60 9.10 9.70 10.20 34.21 0.96Standard Deviation 0.42 0.48 0.23 0.19 Control Average 8.00 9.05 9.55 10.40 30.00 1.00Standard Deviation 0.00 0.07 0.21 0.28
  23. 23. 23 Graph no.7: Average length of the Diameter of stem affected by bamboos grown in different concentrations of Shell-Cal solution compared with bamboos grown in water over a period of 18 days Graph no. 8: Overall % Change of the average length of Stem for bamboos grown in 3 different concentrations of Shell-Cal Sol 7.9 10.12 10.64 11.3 7.3 9.52 10.14 11 7.6 9.1 9.7 10.2 8 9.05 9.55 10.4 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 1 2 3 4 AverageLenghtofStem(cm) No. of Days 0.50% 1.00% 2.00% Control 43.04 50.68 34.21 30.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 0.5 1.0 2.0 control PercentageChange% Concentration % 7 12 18
  24. 24. 24 Upon analysis it shows through graph no.8 that even though the average end point of the plants grown in the control and 2.0% concentration was the same, the percentage change in the length was still higher by 4.21%. Also, while length of the stem when grown with Shell-Cal sol concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%, and concentration 2.0% and water do not exhibit much difference with each other (ranging between 11.3 – 10.4) the plant grown in 1.0 does show a relatively higher result of 50.68% change in growth. There is also a significant margin between the average stem lengths of the plant grown in 0.5% concentration (11.3cm) as compared to the plants grown in water (10.4cm) While the longest length is visible with the plant grown in the 0.5% concentration, it is the plant grown in 1.0% concentration that yields the highest percentage change, suggesting that 1.0% concentration of Shell-Cal would be more ideal for the plants growth.
  25. 25. 25 DATA SET 2: Results with expired Elder- Vit Tablets Data Tables: Parameter 1: Number of leaves Raw data table no.10: showing the number of leaves grown over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Different Concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Trial Number of leaves ( no uncertainty) Day 1 Day 7 Day 12 Day 18 Set A : 0.5% A1 7.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 A2 6.00 10.00 10.00 11.00 A3 7.00 10.00 12.00 13.00 A4 8.00 10.00 11.00 11.00 A5 7.00 9.00 11.00 12.00 Set B : 1.0% B1 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 B2 7.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 B3 6.00 7.00 10.00 11.00 B4 6.00 8.00 12.00 12.00 B5 7.00 9.00 11.00 12.00 Set C : 25% C1 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 C2 7.00 9.00 11.00 11.00 C3 7.00 9.00 11.00 12.00 C4 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 C5 6.00 8.00 10.00 11.00 Control Control1 7.00 8.00 9.00 11.00 Control2 6.00 8.00 10.00 10.00 Processed data table no 11: showing the average no. of leaves and percentage change in the average number of leaves over 18 days on the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Concentration Day1 Day7 Day12 Day18 % Change Correlation 0.5% Average 7 9.6 10.8 11.6 65.71 0.97Standard Deviation 0.70 0.54 0.83 0.89 1.0% Average 6.8 8.4 10.6 11.4 67.65 0.98Standard Deviation 0.83 0.89 0.89 0.54 2.0% Average 7.2 8.8 10.4 11.2 55.56 0.99Standard Deviation 0.83 0.44 0.54 0.44 Control Average 6.5 8 9.5 10.5 61.54 0.99Standard Deviation 0.70 0.00 0.70 0.70
  26. 26. 26 Graph no. 9: Average number of leaves on bamboos grown in (3) different concentrations of Elder-Vit solution compared with bamboos grown in water over a period of 18 days Graph no.10: Overall percentage change of average no. of leaves for bamboos grown in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions 6.92 8.2 10.8 11.6 6.8 8.3 10.4 12 6.94 8.18 9.2 10.6 6.15 7.3 8.5 10 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 7 12 18 Averagelenghtofbranch(cm) no. of days 0.5 % conc. 1.0% conc. 2.0% conc. Control 65.71 67.65 55.56 61.54 40.00 44.00 48.00 52.00 56.00 60.00 64.00 68.00 0.5 1.0 2.0 control percentageChangr% Concentration %
  27. 27. 27 These results show a positive correlation of the growth in number of leaves against the concentration of the expired Elder-Vit solution used. In graph 9, one can note that the blue line showing the results with 0.5% of expired Elder-Vit used, is much higher than the rest of the results with the end point of 11.6 average no. of leaves. However, we cannot conclude that the 0.5% concentration is optimum even though it has the highest no. of leaves as both the steepness of the red curve in graph 9 and the percentage change in number of leaves (67.65%) shows that the maximum growth was found with the 1.0% concentration of expired Elder-Vit used. Moreover, the control which had showed the smallest number of leaves grown may not have been the least effective as the percentage change with the 2.0% concentration (55.56%) was lower than the 61.54 % of the control experiment.
  28. 28. 28 Parameter 2: Length of Branch Raw data table no.10: showing the length branch grown over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Different Concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Trial Length of branch (+/- 0.10cm) Day 1 Day 7 Day 12 Day 18 Set A : 0.5% A1 6.80 7.50 10.00 11.00 A2 6.90 7.70 10.00 11.00 A3 7.00 9.00 12.00 13.00 A4 6.90 7.80 11.00 11.00 A5 7.00 9.00 11.00 12.00 Set B : 1.0% B1 7.00 9.40 11..00 12.00 B2 6.70 8.30 10.00 11.00 B3 6.60 7.60 10.00 11.00 B4 6.80 8.00 10.00 12.00 B5 6.90 8.20 11.00 12.00 Set C : 25% C1 7.00 8.00 9.00 11.00 C2 6.90 7.70 9.00 10.00 C3 7.80 9.00 10.00 11.00 C4 7.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 C5 6.00 7.20 8.00 10.00 Control Control1 6.00 6.80 8.00 10.00 Control2 6.30 7.80 9.00 10.00 Processed data table no 13 : showing the average length of branch and percentage change in the average length of branch over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Concentration Day1 Day7 Day12 Day18 % Change Correlation 0.5% Average 6.92 8.20 10.80 11.60 67.63 0.97Standard Deviation 0.08 0.73 0.83 0.89 1.0% Average 6.80 8.30 10.40 12.00 76.47 1.00Standard Deviation 0.16 0.67 0.54 0.54 2.0% Average 6.94 8.18 9.2 10.6 52.74 1.00Standard Deviation 0.64 0.80 0.84 0.55 Control Average 6.15 7.3 8.5 10 62.60 1.00Standard Deviation 0.21 0.70 0.70 0.00
  29. 29. 29 Graph no. 11: Average Length of branch on bamboos grown in (3) different concentrations of Elder-Vit solution compared with bamboos grown in water over a period of 18 days Graph no. 12 : Overall % Change of the average length of branch for bamboos grown in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Sol 6.92 8.2 10.8 11.6 6.8 8.3 10.4 12 6.94 8.18 9.2 10.6 6.15 7.3 8.5 10 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 Averagelenghtofbranch(cm) Day number 0.5 % conc. 1.0% conc. 2.0% conc. 3.0% conc. 67.63 76.47 52.74 62.60 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 0.5 1.0 2.0 control PercentageChange% Concentration % 7 12 18
  30. 30. 30 Graph 11 shows that the 0.5% solution bamboos reach a length of 11.6 cm while the 1.0% bamboos reach a branch length of 12.0 cm while graph 12 elucidates that the percentage change of 76.47% with the bamboos gorwn in 1.0% concenration of expired Elder-vit is higher than the percentage change of 67.63% shown with the 0.5% concentraion of expired Elder-Vit suggesting that the 1.0% concentration is probably more effective for growth. These results show a higher strong positive correlation of 1.00 as well, further suggesting that the the trajectory shown by all the sloutions used indicates that there is significant growth, but fact that the percentage change in length for the bamboos grown in the 2.0% concentration is around 10% lower than the growth percentage seen with the control btach proves that the highest concentration of elder- vit hinders growth as the bamboo would have been able to grow better only with a lower concentration of expired Elder-vit.
  31. 31. 31 Parameter 3: Diameter of Stem Raw data table no.10: showing the length branch grown over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Different Concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Trial Number Diameter of stem (+/- 0.1cm) Day 1 Day 7 Day 12 Day 18 Set A : 0.5% A1 0.80 1.0 1.0 1.2 A2 0.60 0.8 0.9 1.0 A3 0.50 0.70 0.80 0.9 A4 0.60 0.9 1.0 1.0 A5 0.70 0.9 1.0 1.0 Set B : 1.0% B1 0.60 0.80 0.9 0.9 B2 0.70 0.90 0.9 1.0 B3 0.80 0.90 1.0 1.0 B4 0.50 0.70 0.8 0.9 B5 0.70 0.80 0.9 0.9 Set C : 25% C1 0.70 0.80 0.9 0.9 C2 0.80 0.90 0.9 0.90 C3 0.60 0.70 0.8 0.90 C4 0.70 0.80 0.9 1.00 C5 0.80 0.90 1.0 1.00 Control Control1 0.70 0.70 0.8 0.90 Control2 0.70 0.80 0.9 1.00 Processed data table no 15 : showing the average diameter of stem and percentage change in the average diameter of stem over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Concentration Day1 Day7 Day12 Day18 % Change Correlation 0.5% Average 0.64 0.86 0.94 1.02 59.38 0.97Standard Deviation 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.11 1.0% Average 0.66 0.82 0.9 0.94 42.42 0.96Standard Deviation 0.11 0.08 0.07 0.05 2.0% Average 0.72 0.82 0.9 0.94 30.56 0.98Standard Deviation 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.05 Control Average 0.70 0.75 0.85 0.95 35.71 0.99Standard Deviation 0.00 0.07 0.07 0.07
  32. 32. 32 Graph no. 13 : Average diameter of stem of bamboos grown in (3) different concentrations of Elder-Vit solution compared with bamboos grown in water over a period of 18 days Graph no.14: Overall % Change of the average diameter of stem for bamboos grown in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Sol 0.64 0.86 0.94 1.02 0.66 0.82 0.9 0.94 0.72 0.82 0.9 0.94 0.7 0.75 0.85 0.95 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1 2 3 4 Averagediameterofstem(cm) Day number 0.5% conc. 1.0% conc. 2.0% conc. 59.38 42.42 30.56 35.71 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 0.5 1.0 2.0 control PercentageChange% % Concentration 7 12 18
  33. 33. 33 As shown by graph 13 and 14, the bamboos grown in the 0.5% concentration of expired Elder-Vit yields a relatively higher average diameter (1.02cm) and a percentage change (59.38) than the rest of the plants. The remaining plants yield average results which are comparatively very similar to each other (0.94 and 0.95cm). Notably enough, the percentage change of (30.56%) with the 2.0% concentration used was lower than the value of 35.71% calculated with the control plants. This suggests that the 2.0% concentration of the expired Elder-Vit used was detrimental as plain distilled water yielded a better result. Moreover, in similarity with the observations obtained with the Shell-Cal solution, the difference between the highest and lowest values was very minor, This suggests that expired Elder-Vit solutions did not necessarily enhance the growth of the diameter of the stem of the bamboos.
  34. 34. 34 Parameter 4: Length of Stem Raw data table no.10: showing the length of stem grown over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Different Concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Trial Number Length of Stem (+/- 0.10cm) Day 1 Day 7 Day 12 Day 18 Set A : 0.5% A1 7.00 9.80 10.00 11.00 A2 6.00 10.0 10.00 11.00 A3 7.00 9.00 11.00 11.00 A4 7.00 8.90 10.00 11.00 A5 7.00 9.00 11.00 12.00 Set B : 1.0% B1 7.00 8.70 10.00 11.00 B2 7.00 8.60 10.00 11.00 B3 7.00 8.00 9.80 10.40 B4 8.00 9.20 10.00 11.00 B5 7.00 8.30 10.00 11.00 Set C : 25% C1 7.00 8.50 9.00 11.00 C2 8.00 8.60 9.00 10.00 C3 8.00 8.90 10.00 11.00 C4 7.00 8.00 9.70 11.00 C5 7.00 8.00 8.80 9.90 Control Control1 7.00 8.20 8.00 10.00 Control2 7.00 7.20 9.00 10.00 Processed data table no 17 : showing the average length of stem and percentage change in the average length of stem over 18 days for the bamboos planted in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Solutions Concentration Day1 Day7 Day12 Day18 % Change Correlation 0.5% Average 6.80 9.34 10.40 11.20 64.17 0.96Standard Deviation 0.45 0.52 0.55 0.45 1.0% Average 7.2 8.56 9.96 10.88 51.11 0.95Standard Deviation 0.45 0.455 0.10 0.27 2.0% Average 7.4 8.4 9.3 10.58 42.97 1.00Standard Deviation 0.55 0.39 0.52 0.58 Control Average 7.00 7.70 8.50 10.00 42.86 0.98Standard Deviation 0.00 0.71 0.71 0.00
  35. 35. 35 Graph no. 15: Average length of stem of bamboos grown in (3) different concentrations of Elder-Vit solution compared with bamboos grown in water over a period of 18 days Graph no. 16: Overall percentage change of average length of stem for bamboos grown in 3 different concentrations of Elder-Vit Sol 6.8 9.34 10.4 11.2 7.2 8.56 9.96 10.88 7.4 8.4 9.3 10.58 7 7.7 8.5 10 6 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8 8.4 8.8 9.2 9.6 10 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 12 12.4 1 2 3 4 Averagelenghtofstem Day number 0.5% conc. 1.0% conc. 2.0% conc. Control (0.0% conc.) 64.71 51.11 42.97 42.86 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 0.5 1.0 2.0 control PercentageChanng% Concentration% 1 7 12 18
  36. 36. 36 In coherence with the visible trend seen with the previous parameters, the highest values of average length of stem can be seen with the bamboos grown in the 0.5% concentration of expired Elder-Vit solutions. The average length of stem of the control is lower (10.00 cm) than the length found with the bamboos grown in the 2.0% concentration (10.58cm). While there in only a mere difference of 0.58cm, the 2.0% concentration deviates by +/-0.42cm. Thus, with a significant deviation in the raw data, we cannot conclude that the 2.0% concentration promoted growth more than distilled water. The difference between the 0.5% concentration change and 1.0% concentration’s percentage change (64.71 – 51.11) is 13.60% while the difference between the 1.0% concentration and 0.5% concentration’s percentage change (51.11 – 42.97)is only 8.14.% These differences show that the 0.5% concentration did in fact prove to be the most beneficial for the growth in the length of stem. In fact, it increased the growth by (64.71 – 4286) 19.85% as the control experiment only showed a change in stem length by 42.86% .
  37. 37. 37 Qualitative Data: Description (appearance) of bamboo shoots 3 weeks after addition of solutions 0.5% Concentration 1.0% Concentration 2.0% Concentration Control Root Thick, short, strong and white White, short, and Very thick Relatively fewer and thinner roots Thin, dark and long roots Color of plant Light green in some areas, and dark green in most areas Leaves are dark, stem is light green Leaves are dark green Light green with few patches of dark green Stem Smooth, hard Smooth Wrinkles are present, Stem is light green Turgidity Appears Extremely turgid Appears Extremely turgid Less turgid stem Turgid According to the qualitative descriptions, the plants, which were grown in the solution, appeared to be healthier. However the white deposits on the roots of the plants grown in the solutions of the expired drugs could be explained by the fact that the insoluble precipitate of the solutions steeled on the roots, which could potentially effect diffusion of water to the plants. Figure 1: Control plant to the left and plant A1 to the right (after 2 weeks)
  38. 38. 38 CONCLUSION As stated by the original hypothesis, the data collected for the experiment supports the claim that the exogenous application of expired Elder-Vit and Shell-Cal does work towards enhancing the growth of the bamboo plant. The results of the no. of leaves, for each of the three concentrations of expired Shell-cal and Elder-Vit have a positive correlation with the number of leaves grown on the plant. However, the 1.0% dilution of both the Shell-Cal and Elder-Vit has proven to be most effective in enhancing plant growth as it produced an average number of leaves of which is above the average number of leaves when the control was used. Even the standard deviations are relatively small, signifying that the results achieved are reasonably accurate. In comparison however, The Shell-Cal Supplement has proven to be more effective with a change in growth of 88.57% as compared to Elder-Vit’s heights change of 67.65% . Even the results and the positive correlation obtained for the length of branch for each of the expired drug solutions support the claim that they did positively influenced growth. In fact the percentage change in branch length with 1.0% for expired elder-vit is 13.87 % more than the control experiment while for the expired Shell-Cal it is 19.21 % more. Both types of drugs had the bamboos grown in the 1.0% concentration showing a higher percentage change in branch length than the control experiment showed. However, unlike for Shell-Call, the Bamboos grown in 2.0% of expired Elder-Vit grew less than the control proving that it did deter the plant’s growth.
  39. 39. 39 For the diameter of the stem, there was a positive correlation and a margin between the results of the diameter of stem of the bamboos grown in the expired drug solution and the control shows that there was a slight enhancement of growth as a result of this exogenous application. For both of the expired drugs the lower 0.5% concentration yielded a higher value than the control experiments. However, both the results end results barely varied between the range of 0.9 – 1.3 suggesting that maybe this parameter was not significantly influenced by the expired medicines For the length of the stem, the 0.5% concentration is seen to grow the longest stem for both drugs as compared to the control which grows it to only 4.0 cm. This parameter exhibits that a lesser concentration of expired drug is able to grow a longer stem. It is clear that the 0.5%, 1.0% concentration favors the higher average growth of the stem which is 11.3-11.0cm. However each of the values deviates from the mean by around ±0.93cm and ±0.26cm which is also fairly substantial as compared to the STDEV of the control experiment which is ±0.07 – 0.28cm. The overall conclusion which can be made is that while both the expired medicines did work towards enhancing the plant’s growth, the Shel-Cal supplement proved to be more effective, and for both of the set up’s a lower concentration yielded the better result.
  40. 40. 40 EVALUATION While the result of this investigation supported the hypothesis there are areas, which had scope for improvement. The parameters used were the stem length, the no. of leaves, branch length and diameter of the stem. These parameters, however promising, were not enough to come up with a holistic judgment to determine the extent of the effect of the expired medicines Parameters such as root length, the chlorophyll content measured via a colorimeter, the surface area of the leaves, the no. of roots would have made the experiment more inclusive. The number of trials in the experiment was only 5 plants for each of the different concentrations expired multivitamin solutions. Since the number of plants used per concentration were only limited to 5, the range of readings that were obtained for each growth parameter were also limited. The plants used per concentration should have been increased as increasing the number of plants used per trial of concentration to 10 plants would have automatically lowered the possible error in the investigation and the standard deviation for the readings. Another such limitation was with the number of concentrations used. In this experiment, only three concentrations were used. This made it difficult to determine what concentrations could be considered ideal for growth. This investigation should have adopted the use of a range of different concentrations such as 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% over a longer period of time as well. Plant type and growth medium for this experiment was , Dracaena sanderiana grown in water. Most plants/crops use mud as a growth medium. It is difficult to determine whether the use of expired medicines applied widely if we only use one plant type for the experiment. This experiment would have been more helpful if it was used with
  41. 41. 41 cereal plants grown in mud as the aim of this experiment was to determine the effect on the growth for crops. Another significant shortcoming with this method was the number of control used. There were only 2 control plants, while the plants used for each concentration in the experiment while 5 trials were used for each concentration used. This reduced the accuracy, as the standard deviation shown with the controls was much lesser than the standard deviation calculated with the plants grown in the solutions. Thus, the number of controls used should have been the same as the number of trial used for each of the concentrations. In the future, if these limitations are addressed then this experiment can be carried out on a larger scale over a long period of time. While it was out of the scope of the facilities provided, methods can be adopted to analyze the effect on the plant’s mineral content after they are grown in solution of the expired supplements. While there can also be certain ethical questions raised regarding the use of these expired medicines for the growth of plants and crops, Further research on the physiological effects on animal’s after consumption of plants gown in this medium could also be conducted.
  42. 42. 42 Bibliography 1. http://www.usc.edu/CSSF/History/2004/Projects/J1409.pdf 2. "How to Use Multi Vitamins in Tomato Plants." GardenGuides. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2015 3. National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2015. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16876400 > 4. "Top 11 Doctor Insights on Does Folic Acid Expire - HealthTap." HealthTap. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2015. <https://www.healthtap.com/topics/does-folic-acid-expire> 5. NTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FABA BEAN PLANT." INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FABA BEAN PLANT. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2015. 6. http://forums2.gardenweb.com/discussions/1656193/expired-multivitamin-pills-in-compost 7. Labs and equipment from Elder pharmaceuticals ltd. and B.D. Somani International School Lab 8. Expired medicines from Elder pharmaceuticals ltd. 9. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v16dEgnHKwU 10. "Are Human Multivitamins Good for Plants?" A H L N. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2015 <http://www.ahln.ca/are-human-multivitamins-good-for-plants/> References 1. “To investigate the exogenous application of five different concentrations, 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% of coconut water (source of cytokinin) on the growth of a Fenugreek plant. (Trigonella foenum-graecum)” Biology Extended essay by Meher Irani, May 2012

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