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Engagement, Flow, Presence

A brief introduction to the key factors explaining users' behavior in Web 2.0

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Engagement, Flow, Presence

  1. 1. Engagement Flow Presence An Introduction to Experiential/Engagement Marketing
  2. 2. The new challenge for marketing is the intersection between business strategy, interactive technology, marketing communications and media Interactive communications platforms Marketing communications and media Business strategy New forms of cross -platform brand & marketing communications
  3. 3. Why is this? <ul><li>Multi-platform : Today’s world is multi-platform and multi-channel, and communications must be designed and executed around this fact. </li></ul><ul><li>Coherent : Unity must be achieved via an overarching theme or idea. ‘Integrated’ is not really the right word, because ‘integration’ assumes we are starting with separate bits which we need to bring together. Coherence means we are starting from one single perspective and then allowing for many different manifestations of the central theme </li></ul><ul><li>Technology savvy : New technologies offer huge opportunities in areas such as interactivity, immediacy, accessibility and addressability. Communications programmes need to use these opportunities to the full. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why is this? <ul><li>Economically efficient : Yesterday’s saturation-bombing ‘just-in-case’ messaging strategies were inherently inefficient. By combining the above features creatively, new levels of cost efficiency can be reached. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstream : If the initiative is small and marginal, it’s not worth the candle. Bold and mainstream is the order of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategically ‘on-target’: This goes without saying: the communications exercise must still address the organization’s needs either narrowly in terms of product or service awareness/relevance and/or broadly in terms of corporate reputation, positive brand associations etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The challenge <ul><li>There is a bigger opportunity to engage with </li></ul><ul><li>customers by harnessing combinations of the all channels </li></ul><ul><li>now available, giving customers more compelling reasons to </li></ul><ul><li>engage. </li></ul><ul><li>We call this Engagement Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement marketing seizes the problems of modern marketing </li></ul><ul><li>by the throat, and turns them into an opportunity. </li></ul>
  6. 6. There isn’t just one approach that achieves this new synthesis. There are a range of possibilities (Moore, 2006). <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>To create ‘ matching and connecting ’ processes that revolve around the rich use of personal information and new information technologies and that put the consumer/buyer in control. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve pervasive penetration , so that the brand and its manifestations become an accepted part of every day life. </li></ul><ul><li>To engage people via your marketing, by making this marketing a part of the cultural fabric of people’s lives. </li></ul>
  7. 7. According to Alan Moore (SMLXL - <ul><li>Research shows that this new model of marketing is much more </li></ul><ul><li>effective than the present interruptive model at being able to </li></ul><ul><li>increase sales cycles, build customer loyalty and increase </li></ul><ul><li>customer advocacy </li></ul>
  8. 8. According to Alan Moore (SMLXL): <ul><li>Where Interruptive Marketing attempted to change belief through </li></ul><ul><li>image building and awareness, Engagement Marketing changes </li></ul><ul><li>behaviour through involvement </li></ul><ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Riding the waves of convergence: of multi-media, popular culture and commerce; of media, culture and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging audiences’ active involvement and participation </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging its audiences on a multi-media and multi-platform basis </li></ul>
  9. 9. The benefit (Moore, 2006) <ul><li>Done the right way, this sort of marketing becomes a source of consumer value in its own right – and a means by which the company can innovate its core value propositions. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way, the chasm between ‘what we make’ and ‘how we sell it’ is bridged and marketing becomes a part of what people buy . Marketing becomes less of a cost and more of a source of value for both sides. </li></ul><ul><li>If the idea and engagement is strong enough, for example, people will be prepared to pay for it either directly (e.g. a ticket to an event) or indirectly (e.g. broadcasters paying for programming rights) </li></ul>
  10. 10. According to Alan Moore (SMLXL): <ul><li>Engagement Marketing will involve the customer way beyond the </li></ul><ul><li>short term cycles of current interruptive marketing campaigns </li></ul>Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action Interaction, Engagement Point of purchase
  11. 11. The 4Ps Product Price Promotion Place The 4Cs Content Connectivity Community Commerce The 4Es Engage Experience Enhance Emotion Product or Service Engagement marketing tools Brand as Relationship ‘ Cross-platform branding and marketing communications’
  12. 12. ‘ Cross-platform branding and marketing communications’ 4E’s expanded… An opportunity to: Engage your customers Experience the product or service Enhance your company/customer relationship more Emotionally than traditional advertising.
  13. 13. What are the benefits? <ul><li>Align marketing strategy with business strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Solution-driven, not format-driven </li></ul><ul><li>Increased marketing productivity and cost efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>4. Delivery of compelling concepts that engage audiences and </li></ul><ul><li>deliver bottom line value for business. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Measuring Engagement (Blackshaw, 2006): User Behavior Traffic patterns, time between ad placement and request Propensity to search, seek, or request branded content Platform integration, frequency Cross-platform activity (TV to Web) Issue triggers, depth of advocacy Opinion solicitation (Web site, research) Ad content triggers, message triggers, frequency Ad skipping or filtering Actual usage, depth of involvement, follow-up On-demand samples or demos Traffic patterns, length of stay, call to action Web site visit Frequency, targeting method, longevity On-demand behavior (ads, RSS, etc.) Participation, depth of involvement, length Interaction with an on- or offline ad Length of relationship, open rates, calls to action Permission or opt-in Key Weighting Variables Engagement Activities
  15. 15. Measuring Engagement (Blackshaw, 2006): Consumer Generated Media Depth of loyalty, consumer profile Propensity to offer product suggestions How public or searchable, how validating CGM on blogs and boards What issue, depth of emotion, or influence Unsolicited feedback (email, call center) Pass-along utility measures, survey design Aided propensity to tell others To whom, in what context, total reach Unaided propensity to tell others Key Weighting Variables Engagement Activities
  16. 16. Connected to Engagement : Flow <ul><li>Flow is a mental state of operation in which the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing, characterized by a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, the concept has been widely referenced across a variety of fields. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Connected to Engagement : Flow <ul><li>As Csikszentmihalyi sees it, components of an experience of flow can be specifically enumerated ; he presents eight: </li></ul><ul><li>Clear goals (expectations and rules are discernable). </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrating and focusing , a high degree of concentration on a limited field of attention (a person engaged in the activity will have the opportunity to focus and to delve deeply into it). </li></ul><ul><li>A loss of the feeling of self-consciousness , the merging of action and awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Distorted sense of time - one's subjective experience of time is altered. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and immediate feedback (successes and failures in the course of the activity are apparent, so that behavior can be adjusted as needed). </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between ability level and challenge (the activity is neither too easy nor too difficult). </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of personal control over the situation or activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The activity is intrinsically rewarding , so there is an effortlessness of action. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Connected to Engagement : Measuring Flow <ul><li>Recently, the flow construct has been proposed as important for understanding consumer behavior on the World Wide Web. To read: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novak T.P., Hoffman D.L. e Yung Y.F., 1999, Measuring the flow Construct in OnlineEnvironments: A Structural Modelling Approach, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jones, CD; Hollenhorst, SJ; Perna, F; Selin, S Validation of the flow theory in an on-site whitewater kayaking setting, JOURNAL OF LEISURE RESEARCH, 32(2), 2000, pp. 247 – 261 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VOELKL JE; ELLIS; GD MEASURING FLOW EXPERIENCES IN DAILY-LIFE - AN EXAMINATION OF THE ITEMS USED TO MEASURE CHALLENGE AND SKILL; Journal of leisure research, 30(3), 1998, pp. 380 - 389 </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Connected to Engagement : Presence <ul><li>Presence is the mental state of “being there”, in which the person is fully immersed and engaged in what he or she is doing, usually a media experience (IJSSELSTEIJN and RIVA, 2004; RIVA, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>According to SLATER (1992): </li></ul><ul><li>“ the total response to being in a place, and to being in a place with other people. The ‘sense of being there’ is just one of many signs of presence - and to use it as a definition or a starting point is a category error: somewhat like defining humor in terms of a smile” (p. 7). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Connected to Engagement : Presence <ul><li>There is consensus that the experience of presence is a complex, multidimensional perception , formed through an interplay of raw (multi-)sensory data and various cognitive processes – an experience in which attentional factors play a crucial role as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Two general categories of variables can determine a user's presence: (i) media characteristics, and (ii) user characteristics. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Connected to Engagement : Presence <ul><li>Riva, Waterworth and Waterworth (2004, 2006) present a model of presence as consisting of three potentially contributing layers : proto presence, core presence, and extended presence (see Figure 1) based on Damasio’s neurological account of the evolution of the human psyche: </li></ul>
  22. 22. Connected to Engagement : Measuring Presence <ul><li>All the instruments for measuring presence are described here: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>