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Report of design and development of multi purpose mechanical machine

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GEC BHAVNAGAR
Design &Development of
“MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE”.
A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted By
JitendraJha (090210...
GEC BHAVNAGAR
GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BHAVNAGAR
Gujarat Technological University
Vidyanagar, Bhavnagar-364001
CERT...
GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 1
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Report of design and development of multi purpose mechanical machine

  1. 1. GEC BHAVNAGAR Design &Development of “MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE”. A PROJECT REPORT Submitted By JitendraJha (090210119111) GautamParmar (090210119096) KumharSawarmal(100213119004) Vijay Kumar Mer(090210119047) In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING In MECHANICAL Guided by Prof.H.N.Jani GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE Gujarat Technological University Vidyanagar, Bhavnagar-364001
  2. 2. GEC BHAVNAGAR GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BHAVNAGAR Gujarat Technological University Vidyanagar, Bhavnagar-364001 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr.JitendraJha, Mr.GautamParmar, Mr.VijayKumarMerandMr.KumharSawarmalof BE VIII semester mechanical engineering enrolment no 090210119111, 090210119096, 090210119047 and 100213119004has satisfactory presented their project entitled “DEVLOPEMENT OF MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE” for the term ending in May 2013 Date: Internal Guide: - Head of Department Prof.H.N.Jani
  3. 3. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 1
  4. 4. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 2 Acknowledgement  We feel in great in presenting the report of our project “MUILTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE” which finds application in much modern equipment and system, this project is done in partial fulfilment of B.M.E. (Bech. in mechanical engineering) course at the G.E.C Bhavnagar.  We wish to express our sincere gratitude and thanks to our guide professorMr. H.N.JANI. During our whole project work for his inspiration give to us and guidance showered open us. He was greatly helpful to us by solving all our queries and difficulties. We are also thankful to our head of the department of mechanical engineering  Last but not we are thankful to and all out lecturers who showered upon there help and guidance during the project work and also our friends who always ready to help.
  5. 5. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 3 ABSTRACT This thesis deal with design,devlopment and fabrication of “MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE”. This machine is designed for the purpose of MULTI-OPERATIONs i.e. DRILLING, CUTTING & SHAPING. This machine perform multipurpose operation at same time with required speed & this machine is automatic which is controlled or operated by motor which is run with the help of current. This machine is based on the mechenism of whitworths return. This model of the multi OPERATIONAL machine is may be used in industries and domestic OPERATION which can perform mechanical operation like drilling, cutting &shaping of a thin metallic as well as wooden model or body.
  6. 6. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 4 LIST OF FIGURE No Figure Name Page No 1 Whitworth’s Mechanism 9 2 3D View of MPMM 11 3 ACTUAL VIEW of MPMM 12 4 Drilling Machine 20 5 Shaping Machine 21 6 Cutting Machine 22
  7. 7. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 5 LIST OF TABLES No Table Name Page No 1 Specification of drill 20 2 Specification of hacksaw 23 3 Project Cost 24
  8. 8. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement………………………………… I Abstract …………………………………………… II List of Figures ………………………………… III Chapter: 1 Project Definition 1.1 Problem statement…………………………. 8 1.2 Problem identification................................... 8 Chapter: 2 Mechanism of MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE 2.1 Objective……………………………………… 9 2.2 Theory………………………………………… 9 2.3 Whitworth’s Mechanism………………………. 10 Chapter:3 Design of model 3.1 Components…………………………………… 13 3.2 Calculation…………………………………… 14 3.3 Advantage……………………………………. 17 Chapter:4 Operation of Machine 4.1Drilling……………………………………….. 18 4.2Shaping……………………………………… 21
  9. 9. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 7 4.3Cutting……………………………………….. 22 Chapter:5 Project Cost ………………………… 24 Chapter:6 Future Implementation………………….. 25 Chapter:7 Conclusion………………………………… 26 Chapter:8Refrence…………………………………… 27
  10. 10. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 8 Chapter: 1 PROBLEM DEFINITION 1.1 Problem Statement To design and development of MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE, a structured whichis designed for the purpose of MULTI-OPERATIONs i.e. DRILLING, CUTTING & SHAPING. 1.2 Problem Identification This machine perform multipurpose operation at same time with required speed & this machine is automatic which is controlled or operated by motor which is run with the help of current.This machine is based on the mechenism of whit worths return. This model of the multi OPERATIONAL machine is may be used in industries and domestic OPERATION which can perform mechanical operation like drilling, cutting & shaping of a thin metallic as well as wooden model or body.
  11. 11. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 9 Chapter: 2 MECHANISM OF MACHINE WHITWORTH’S QUICK RETURN MECHANISM 2.1 OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to investigate the performance of a whitworth quick turn motion and to verify that the motion does have a quick return stroke and a slow cutting or forward stroke. 2.2 THEORY Definition of a mechanism Mechanisms is a simplified model , usually in the form of a line diagram, whis is used to reproduse exactly the motion occuring in a machine. The purpose if this reproduction is to enable the nature of the motion to be investigated without the encumbrance of the various solid bodies which forms the machine elements. 2.3 WHITWORTH’S QUICK RETURN MECHANISM Whitworth’s mechanism
  12. 12. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 10 The above diagram showa the mechanism as used on the apparatus. Link 1 on the top diagram is extended to point A.Aattach to point A is another link with pivot . The other end of this link terminated in a slider. In a machine tool where this mechanism is used the cutting tool is attached to this slider. The link POA rotates about a O. The mechanism is driven by crank PC ehich rotates a about Cwith constant velocity. The slider at P slides allong POA as the crank is turned. Its path is shown by the dashed circle, centered on C and through P. Clearly when P is at P1 the slider S is at the outer extremity of its travel .When P is at P2 the slider S is at the inner extremity of its travel. Now as PC rotates with constant velocity the time taken to go from P1 to P2 is less than that taken to go from P2 to P1. However during both those time intervels the slider as moving the same distance.Therefore the speed of S is different during the different patrs of cycle.During the shorter time intervals P1 to P2 the slider as has the greter speed and during the interval P2 to P1 it has slower speed . Thus P1 to P2 is quick return and P2 to P1. When applied to metal cutting machine the other advantage is variable power distribution during the cycle .When S is on the return stroke the slider at P is nearer to O and simple moments shows that the torque applied is low. Hence, the retutn stroke uses less power as P=T.w. During the cutting stroke the slider at P is at greater radius from O and thus more power is available to perform useful work in cutting metal. THUS THE OVERALL PERFORMANCE IS TO PROVIDE HIGH POWER FORWARD CUTTING STROKE WITH A LOW POWER AND HIGHER SPEED QUICK RETURN IN PREPARATION FOR THE NEXT CUT.
  13. 13. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 11 Chapter: 3 DESIGN OF MODEL 3D VIEW
  14. 14. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 12 ACTUAL MODEL
  15. 15. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 13 3.1Component of machine 1) FRAME 2) BEVEL GEAR 3) WHITWORTH MECHANISM 4) MOTOR 5) PULLEY 6) BEARING (BALL & SLIDING BEARING) 7) ROCKER ARM 8) HACKSAW BLADE 9) TOOL POST 10) DRILLING CHUCK 11) DRILL TOOL 12) SINGLE CUTTING TOOL 13) TABLE 14) NUT & BOLT 15) OTHER COMPONETS
  16. 16. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 14 3.2 CALCULATION 1. Cutting/shaping Speed Speed ofmotor (Nm): 2400 rpm Diameter of pulley A : 25mm Diameter of pulley B : 160mm We have to find out Bull wheel speed (Ns): We know that, NsNm=Da/Db Ns=(Da/Db)*Nm Ns=(25/160)*2400 =375 rpm Bull Wheel speed(Ns)=375rpm 1 stroke of ram is completed in 1 revolution of crank wheel. K=1
  17. 17. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 15 Velocity of sawing/Shaping Machine; Velocity(v)={L*N*(1+K)}/1000 m/min Length of Ram stroke(L)=50mm Number of Full stroke(N)=200stroke/min Ratio of return time to cutting time(K)=1 Hence, V={L*N*(1+k)}/1000 V={50*200*(1+1)}/1000 V=20m/min Therefore, velocity or Ram(Cutting/shaping) is 20m/min. 2. Drilling Speed: Speed of Pinion(Np) : 375rpm No. of teeth Pinion (Tp) : 10 No. of teeth Gear (Tg) : 18
  18. 18. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 16 We have to find out Speed of gear (Ng) We know that, Ng/Np=Tp/Tg Ng=(Tp/Tg)*Np Ng=(10/18)*375= 208 rpm Therefore, Drilling speed is 208rpm.
  19. 19. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 17 3.3ADVANTAGE  Multi operations are performed at one time  Our machine is used Return stroke (whit worth) mechanism  The return stroke of shaper machine is utilized as cutting operation  All operation is performed by only one motor  Size is compact therefore it require less space  Time saving  Less man power is required  Low manufacturing & maintenance cost
  20. 20. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 18 Chapter: 4 OPERATION OF MACHINE Operation performs by machine:- 1. DRILLING 2. SHAPING 3. CUTTING 4.1DRILLING Drilling is the operation of producing circular hole in the work-piece by using a rotating cutter called DRILL.  The machine used for drilling is called drilling machine.  The drilling operation can also be accomplished in lathe, in which the drill is held in tailstock and the work is held by the chuck.  The most common drill used is the twist drill. Drilling Machine  It is the simplest and accurate machine used in production shop.  The work piece is held stationary ie. Clamped in position and the drill rotates to make a hole.
  21. 21. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 19 Components of drillingmachine 1. Spindle The spindle holds the drill or cutting tools and revolves in a fixed position in a sleeve. 2. Sleeve The sleeve or quill assembly does not revolve but may slide in its bearing in a direction parallel to its axis. When the sleeve carrying the spindle with a cutting tool is lowered, the cutting tool is fed into the work: and when it’s moved upward, the cutting tool is withdrawn from the work. Feed pressure applied to the sleeve by hand or power causes the revolving drill to cut its way into the work a fraction of an mm per revolution. 3. Column The column is cylindrical in shape and built rugged and solid. The column supports the head and the sleeve or quill assembly. 4. Head The head of the drilling machine is composed of the sleeve, a spindle, an electric motor and feed mechanism. The head is bolted to the column. 5. Worktable The worktable is supported on an arm mounted to the column. The worktable can be adjusted vertically to accommodate different heights of work or it can be swung completely out of the way. It may be tilted up to 90 degree in either direction, to allow long pieces to be end or angle drilled. 6. Base The base of the drilling machine supports the entire machine and when bolted to the floor, provides for vibration-free operation and best machining accuracy. The top of the base is similar to the worktable and may be equipped with t- slot for mounting work too larger for the table. 7.Hand Feed
  22. 22. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 20 The hand- feed drilling machines are the simplest and most common type of drilling machines in use today. These are light duty machine that are operated by the operator, using a feed handled, so that the operator is able to “feel” the action of the cutting tool as it cuts through the work piece. These drilling machines can be bench or floor mounted. 8. Power feed The power feed drilling machine are usually larger and heavier than the hand feed ones they are equipped with the ability to feed the cutting tool in to the work automatically duty work or the work that uses large drills that require power feed larger work pieces are usually clamped directly to the table or base using t –bolts and clamps by a small work places are held in a vice. A depth –stop mechanism is located on the head, near the spindle, to aid in drilling to a precise depth. Drilling machine Specification:- Drill size in mm Feed in mm/rev. 3.2 & less 0.025-0.050 3.2 to 6.4 0.050-0.10 6.4 to 12.7 0.10-0.18 12.7 to 25.4 0.18-0.38 25.4 & large 0.38-0.64
  23. 23. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 21 4.2SHAPING The shaping machine is used to machine flat metal surfaces especially where a large amount of metal has to be removed. Other machines such as milling machines are much more expensive and are more suited to removing smaller amounts of metal, very accurately.  The reciprocating motion of the mechanism inside the shaping machine can be seen in the diagram. As the disc rotates the top of the machine moves forwards and backwards, pushing a cutting tool. The cutting tool removes the metal from work which is carefully bolted down.  The shaping machine is a simple and yet extremely effective machine. It is used to remove material, usually metals such as steel or aluminium, to produce a flat surface. However, it can also be used to manufacture gears such as rack and pinion systems and other complex shapes. Inside its shell/casing is a crank and slider mechanism that pushes the cutting tool forward and returns it to its original position. This motion is continuous. SHAPING MACHINE
  24. 24. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 22 4.3CUTTING A hacksaw is a fine-tooth saw with a blade held under tensionin a frame, used for cuttingmaterials such as metal or plastics. Hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal arch with a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. The blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. On the push stroke, the arch will flex slightly, decreasing the tension on the blade. Blades are available in standardized lengths, usually 10 or 12 inches for a standard hand hacksaw. "junior" hacksaws are half this size. Powered hacksaws may use large blades in a range of sizes, or small machines may use the same hand blades. CUTTING OPERATION Specification of hacksaw Size of hacksaw blade:- Thickness;-1.27-2.54 mm Width;-25.40-50.80mm Length 304.80-609.60mm
  25. 25. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 23 Work piece material Cutting speed in m/s Mild Steel 0.75 Cast Iron 0.50 Brass/ Aluminum 1.5 Bronze 1.25 Thin section (pipes & tubes) 1.5
  26. 26. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 24 Chapter : 5 COSTING OF PROJECT Sr. No. Particulars Total Quantity CostRs./unit Total Coast 1. Motor- 2400rpm 01 1500 1500 2. Bearing 6600 no. 04 80 320 3. Bearing 60x100 01 450 450 4. Gear & pinion 01 620 620 5. Circular Plate(150mmdia) 04 85 340 6. Screw nut Assembly 03 25 75 7. Iron angle thickness 3mm 12kg 80 960 8. Pipe (20mm dia). 5feet 40 200 9. Pulley(160mm dia) 01 270 270 10. Pulley(20mm dia) 01 80 80 11. Rope 01 30 30 12. Drill Chuck 01 110 110 13. Drill Tool(2.5mm) 01 20 20 14. Hacksaw tool 01 20 20 15. Shaping tool 01 15 15 16. Welding Work -- 1200 1200 17. Paint 02 60 120 18. Nut & bolt 02 10 20 19. Lubricant 01 50 50 20. Cable 01 20 20 21. Transportation& Misc. Expenses -- 600 600 TOTAL 7020rs
  27. 27. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 25 Chapter: 6 FUTURE IMPLIMENTATION  We can perform various operations like cutting , drilling or shaping individually by introducing coupling ( engagement & disengagement ) between them.  We can perform Grinding operation by introducing a grinding tool at the main shaft.  We can perform boring operation by introducing a boring tool by replacing drilling tool.  We can change the speed of motor by regulator.
  28. 28. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 26 Chapter: 7 CONCLUSION After completing the major project on “MUILTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE” we are much happy and would like to thank our professor, guides and the lectures of the concerned department who have guided us. While making this project we have been able to learn a lot and understand the various aspects of “MUILTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE” we can use our knowledge, which we get during our study.
  29. 29. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 27 Chapter: 8 Reference The websites:  www.technologystudent.com  www.terry-eng27.blogspot.in  www.en.wikipedia.org  www.ask.reference.com  www.dictionary.reference.com  www.community.machinedesign.com  www.gtuinnovationcouncil.ac.in  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsaoTo1vuY4&NR=1&feature=ends creen  www.google.com  www.sciencedirect.com
  30. 30. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 28 The Helpful Books:  Workshop Technology(Hazrachaudhary)  Theory of Machine (R.S.Khurmi)  Machine Design  Production Technology

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