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The dominant state-driven transition in agricultural modernisation promotes the replacement of old knowledge/varieties for modern ones as they do not fit with productive and efficient industrial agriculture. They are dubbed as "backwarded". Stringent legal frameworks (IP rights & safety regulations) and political (dis)incentives are geared to replace open local landraces by modern patent-restricted varieties. And yet, there are alternative transition pathways where citizens reclaim a different and more sustainable, open-source agriculture, meaningful landscapes and communal practices that reinforce connectedness, social and economic benefits, and pleasure in doing things with others. And heirloom seeds fit well in that narrative. Studying in detail the motivations and food and seed values of participants in four case studies or agro-biodiversity conservation (UK, Belgium, Slovenia and Germany), this research shows that non-economic motivations related to "old" are still quite relevant (heritage, tradition, ancestors, heirloom, etc). There are diverse pathways to preserve agro-biodiversity by combining economic and Non-economic policy beliefs. And different non-economic Policy Beliefs are meaningful in different contexts for the same resource.