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SOCRATES “… knowledge which encompasses truth. … contains metaphysics, logic, rhetoric, ethics, economics, politics and aesthetics.(382SM- 322SM)
PLATO“… only through knowledge can man attain the real truth.” (427SM- 348SM)
AL-FARABI “… knowledge about the physical universe.”(870SM- 950SM)
Thinking thoroughlyFree from the bonds of tradition PRACTICALITY Characteristics: systematic, rational, universal
Thinking logically andSystematic sequentially Thinking to the finest detail and Rational solving the problem with full responsibility Not being confined to severalUniversal aspects only
Can we say that all questions are philosophicalquestions?What is classified as philosophy?Who philosophises?Is there a difference between a common manwho philosophises and a philosopher?What is the difference?
Metaphysics (ontology): speculative, cause-and-effect relationship E.g: What is truth? What is mankind? Logic: differentiates between valid and Axiology: ethics and confusing ideas BRANCHES OF aesthetics E.g: What is good PHILOSOPHY E.g: What is goodness?reasoning? Not so good What is beauty? reasoning? Epistomology: knowledge and beliefs E.g: What is knowledge? What are the sources of knowledge?
Prof. Hassan Dictionary ofLanggulung Education (1987) (1979) DEFINITIONDr. Yusuf al- John Dewey Qardawi (1859- 1952) (1980)
e-ducere - To lead outA comprehensive process to develop an individual’s abilities and behaviour. A social process which provides opportunities for the individual to acquire social skills for personal development.
•Education is a process to elevate man’s status. •School is seen as a special environment which is the same as the social environment.JOHN DEWEY
•Education encompasses our whole being- physically, emotionally, spiritually and intellectually. •Its purpose is to prepare man to face the world which is continually faced with good and bad, sweetness and bitterness.DR. YUSUF AL-QARDAWI
PROF. HASSAN LANGGULUNGEducation is a process of changing the cultural values of each individual through: teaching, training, indoctrination
Western EducationistsFriedrich Froebel (1782-1852) John Milton (1608-1674) The purpose of education is A complete education to live an honest, pure and enables a man to act in a just respectful life. and considerate manner at all times and in all places.
Eastern Educationists Confucius Rabindrananth Tagore (551- 479BC) (1861- 1941) Education nurtures good Education is to produce good thinkers behaviour in man through good and achievers in all aspects of life: manners, consideration, respect physical, intellectual, moral, spiritual. for our elders, love of those An educated person is ready to serveyounger than us and loyalty to love society and country at all times. for King and country.
Islamic EducationistsAl-Ghazali (1058- 1111 C.E) Mohd Qatb Education is a process which produces a holistic and balanced individual. It also aims to develop fully the intellectual, physical, emotional and spiritual potentials Education encompasses the of the individual. intellect and physical domains, as well as character formation characterized by bravery and respect for others.
CONCEPT OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONSocialization processCultural development Social integration Social placement
DEFINITION OF ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY Al-Kindi Al-Farabi Ibn Sina• Consists of 3 • Can be seen • Categorized aspects: from 2 angles: into 2 types of• Physics • Theory – knowledge:• Mathematics knowledge • Revelation of• Attributes of about existing God delivered God. things. through • Practice – messengers things that • The hereafter. exist in action.
ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE“ … a continuous process that nurtures the natural potentials of human beings from the intellectual, behavioral, spiritual and physical aspects in an integrated and balanced manner so as to produce righteous human beings who will bring goodness to this world and hereafter ”
OTHER ISLAMIC EDUCATIONISTS…• Abdul Halim El-Muhammady, 1993: “ … the purpose of education is to produce righteous individuals who are willing to take on the responsibility of the Caliphs (successors of Prophet Muhammad) entrusted by Allah to lead us to happiness in this world and in the next”.
• Abd Halim Hj. Mat Diah, 1989: “ Islamic education is a process for all under the purposeful guidance of educators who will shape Muslims based on the teachings of Islam”.
AIMS1) To inculcate a noble character;2) To educate the soul to be refined and perfect;3) To teach students to do good, respectful and noble deeds;4) To train students to be courteous and be good human beings;5) To inculcate cleanliness, purity and sincerity as well as noble practices in students.
GOALS !!! To produce human beings who areTo shape and develop obedient to Allah, live human beings to in peace and harmonybecome acknowledge, in society and so enjoy faithful and tranquility andtrustworthy righteous protection in the and noble Muslim. hereafter.
Muslim faith Character-building education education Physical (Al-imansiyah) (Al-Khuluqiyah) education (Al-jismiyah)Sex education AREAS OF ISLAMIC (Al-jinisiyah) EDUCATION Mental education (Al-aqiliyah) Social Life education education (Al-nafsiyah) (Al-ijlimayah)
The Islamic philosophy of education will encompass the different fields of Islamic education• The Islamic creed which contains 6 articles of faith namely• Ibadah which is used in 3 meanings: 1. worship and adoration; 2. obedience and submission; 3. service and subjection.• Competence• Leadership
ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHERS• Ibnu Rushd (520-595 Hijrah) • He put many new and good ideas not only in the field of philosophy but also in medicine and Islamic legislation. • His great works: – Kulliyah fit-Thibb – 16 volumes in general medicine. – Foundations of Philosophy (Malbadil Falsafah)
• Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) – Produced more than 400 literary works in theology (study of religion), philosophy, science and sufism (a mystic tradition within Islam) – His great works: • Ihya al-Ulum al-Din – a broad field of Islamic science, jurisprudence, logic and sufism.• Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) – Major contribution was in the History of Philosophy and sociology. – Write about the history of the world. – His great works: • Universal History • Summary of the result (religion)
• Al-Farabi (870-950 AD) – Major contribution was in Philosophy, logic and sociology. – His great works: • Kitab al-ihsa al ‘ulum- explains the classification and principles of basic science. • Kitab al-Musiqa – a book on music.
Principles :• Human beings can be good if they are willing to change. This change happens as a result of contact with the teacher, regardless whether he is prophet, sifu or tok guru.
• One’s attitudes towards life is a determinant for attaining happiness. For example : According to the teachings of Buddha, of we live only to chase after material things, it is almost impossible for us to attain happiness.
• Human beings learn by observing their natural surrounding . Simply, this means that if w engage in self-reflection, two possibilities will occur. Either we will be thankful to God for the blessings bestowed upon us or we will be ready to repent for our wrongdoings.
• Every human being wants to be obtain Enlightenment and attain Nirvana . All the roads in life lead to that direction. When we have become wise, automatically, we will do good and avoid doing wrong.
Views of Eastern philosophersConfucius (551-479 SM) Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941)
• Life history – Born in 551 SM in Qufu, Shandong Province. – He was from a poor family but he was a diligent student when he was young. – At the age of 20, he was offered the post as junior official in the Imperial Place. – Later, he became a judge in Chung-Tu, then Grand Secretary of Justice and finally as Chief Minister. – He had travelled far to spread his teachings in various fields include philosophy, music, administration and ethnics.
• At the prime of his career as the Great Teacher, he had close to 3000 followers including 72 who were excellent scholars.• The teachings of Confucius is a separate school known as Confucian School.• The influence of this teachings lasted for two thousands years.
• Confucius died in 479 SM at the age of 73.• His followers wrote down all the conversation they had with the great teacher as a sign of remembrance.• They collected all answers to questions, various types of problems and daily life situations and it is known as Confucius Analects.
Confucius’ Philosophy of Education Concept of education. Education is for all, irrespective of socioeconomic or social status. Goals of education. To produce an able individual (ziancai) with good moral values.
• Curriculum. Focus on the subjects below : Moral Education- Some of the values emphasized include respect for parents (xiao), respect for elders ( ti), deligence (min), loyalty (zhong), thrift (jian), give- and-take (rang), wisdom (zhi), and bravery (yong). Six books of Confucius encompassing philosophy, politics, economics and culture. Music. Poetry. Literature. History. Code of good behaviour.
• Role of the teacher. – As a skilled facilitator and disseminator of knowledge. – For this purpose, a teacher has to show commitment and responsibility for tasks assigned to him. – Besides, it is also important for him to know and understand his pupils in order to maximize these potentials and abilities.
• Life’s history – He was born in Kalkota, India in 1861. – He was from a rich Brahmin family. – At first , he was interested to become lawyer. However, his ambition was not realized. – In 1901, Tagore set up school in Santiniketan which later became university in1921. – Although some of Tagore’s works were translated into English. – These included books and essays about philosophy, religion ,education and so on.
Rabindranath Tagore’s Philosophy of Education• Concept of education. A process to prepare human beings to live their own lives.• Goals of education. Produce holistic individuals through interaction and integration with the environment.
• Role of teacher. As a facilitator as well as catalyst to initiate pupils’ discussion and generate good and creative ideas amongst pupils.• Curriculum. Stresses knowledge and physical activities. Some of the subjects recommend include following : – Music – Arts – Literature – Drama and Dance – History – Environmental Studies
Implication towards educational development in Malaysia• Islamic philosophy More applicable to everyday life and expand the curriculum to reflect teaching of Islam as a way of life. Islamic Philosophy tends to mould education in the entire of situation. Islamic philosophy of education shape one’s attitude, character and moral of the students. Train, change and educate Muslim students based in Islamic views.
Eastern philosophy• The teachers are fully responsible in performing the effective lessons.• The culture emphasizes on conformity, which stifles creative thinking.• Students are more disciplined and have higher morality, as they often conform to rules and religious teaching. Hence, conformity is good for morality.