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Supporting Self-Regulated Learning by Information and Communication Technologies

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Applying Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) and related meta-cognitive learning strategies is an efficient way how to increase the learning progress. This is quite challenging to be facilitated with learning technologies as such training requires an individualized approach and a right balance between the learner’s freedom and guidance. The lecture introduces a brief theoretical background from various perspectives. Then technological solutions are proposed and case studies presented. Finally evaluation challenges will be discussed.

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Supporting Self-Regulated Learning by Information and Communication Technologies

  1. 1. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 1 Learning Layers Supporting Self-Regulated Learning by Information and Communication Technologies Milos Kravcik Advanced Community Information Systems (ACIS) RWTH Aachen University, Germany kravcik@dbis.rwth-aachen.de TELGalicia, Santiago de Compostela, March 9, 2015
  2. 2. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 2 Learning Layers My Places
  3. 3. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 3 Learning Layers My Projects Years Title Description 1992-1993 CEZAP TEMPUS project New Study and Vocational Possibilities for Visually Handicapped Students 1995-1996 LEARN-ED COPERNICUS project Learning and Educational Access using Remote Networks - Enabling the Disabled 2001-2004 WINDS 5th Framework IST Project Web based Intelligent Design System 2002-2005 RAFT 5th Framework IST Project Remotely Accessible Field Trips 2004-2008 PROLEARN 6th Framework IST Project Network of Excellence in Professional Learning 2006-2009 TENCompetence 6th Framework IST-TEL Integrated Project Building the European Framework for Lifelong Competence Development 2008-2009 GRAPPLE 7th Framework ICT STREP Project Generic Responsive Adaptive Personalized Learning Environment 2008-2009 ICOPER 7th Framework eContentplus BPN Project Interoperable Content for Performance in a Competency-driven Society 2009-2013 ROLE 7th Framework ICT IP Project Responsive Open Learning Environments 2010-2014 GALA 7th Framework Project Network of Excellence Game and Learning Alliance
  4. 4. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 4 Learning Layers RWTH Aachen University 1,250 spin-off businesses have created around 30,000 jobs in the greater Aachen region over the past 20 years IDEA League Germany’s Excellence Initiative: 3 clusters of excellence, a graduate school and the institutional strategy “RWTH Aachen 2020: Meeting Global Challenges” 260 institutes in 9 faculties as Europe’s leading institutions for science and research Currently around 31,400 students are enrolled in over 100 academic programs Over 5,000 of them are international students hailing from 120 different countries
  5. 5. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 5 Learning Layers Responsive Open Community Information Systems Community Visualization and Simulation Community Analytics Community Support WebAnalytics WebEngineering Advanced Community Information Systems (ACIS) Group @ RWTH Aachen Requirements Engineering
  6. 6. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 6 Learning Layers Learning Layers: Scaling up Technologies for Informal Learning in SME Clusters  7th Framework Programme  Integrated Project  Scaffolding  http://learning-layers.eu/ ACIS TEL Projects ROLE: Responsive Open Learning Environments  IST 7th Framework Programme  Integrated Project  Scientific coordination  Self-Regulated & Social Learning  http://www.role-project.eu BOOST: Business PerfOrmance imprOvement through individual employee Skills Training  EU LLP TOI  Workplace Learning in SME  http://www.boost-project.eu/ GaLA: Games and Learning Alliance  IST 7th Framework Programme  Network of Excellence on Serious Games  http://www.galanoe.eu/
  7. 7. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 7 Learning Layers Agenda Motivation: Effective & Efficient Learning Pedagogy: Self-Regulated Learning Technology: Personal Learning Environments Implementation: Case Studies Evaluation Issues Conclusion
  8. 8. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 8 Learning Layers Motivation Effective and Efficient Learning Film ALPHABET – Erwin Wagenhofer “What we learn shapes our stock of knowledge, but how we learn shapes our thinking.” The Purpose of Education – Noam Chomsky “Education is really aimed at helping students get to the point where they can learn on their own...” “It doesn't matter what we cover, it matters what you discover.”
  9. 9. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 9 Learning Layers Our Education System
  10. 10. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 10 Learning Layers The Problem of Self-Control Recent research shows that the top killer of people (in developed countries) is their inability to make smart choices and overcome their own self-destructive behaviors. Most people are the agents of their own demise. That's a vast difference from a century ago, when the number of deaths brought on by personal decisions was very low (infectious diseases account for most of the rest). These results suggest that more effort directed toward improving personaldecisions regarding life risks may be an effective and economical way to save lives. Keeney, R. L., “Personal Decisions are the Leading Cause of Death,” Operations Research, 56(6), November-December 2008.
  11. 11. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 11 Learning Layers Self-Control The Marshmallow Test (Mischell 2014): Due to brain flexibility, self-control can be learned “I think, therefore I can change what I am.”
  12. 12. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 12 Learning Layers 2 Kinds of Thinking Automatic system (hot): – gut reaction: • intuitive, rapid, instinctive • associated with the oldest parts of the brain Reflective system (cool) – conscious thought: • rational, deliberate, self-conscious AS & RS can correct each other
  13. 13. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 13 Learning Layers Problem Changing preferences of humans Long-term aims vs. instant gratification Cognitive biases – the power of context Balance between Freedom of choice – motivation Guidance – effectiveness
  14. 14. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 14 Learning Layers Pedagogy Self-Regulated Learning SRL: monitoring & managing of own cognitive processes, control over emotions, motivations, behavior, learning environment (Nilson 2013) Application of SRL increases the effectiveness of education Issue: few students are self-directed learners SRL depends on personal decisions and can be influenced by environment (recommendations)
  15. 15. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 15 Learning Layers ROLE Self-Regulated Learning Process Model based on Zimmermann Model [Zimmermann, 2002] Nussbaumer, A., Berthold, M., Dahrendorf, D., Schmitz, H. C., Kravcik, M., & Albert, D. (2012). A mashup recommender for creating personal learning environments. In Advances in Web-Based Learning-ICWL 2012 (pp. 79-88). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. learner profile information is defined and revised learner finds and selects learning resources learner works on selected learning resources plan learnreflect ideal learner can control the own learning process typical learners needs support and guidance learner reflects and reacts on strategies, achievements, and usefulness
  16. 16. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 16 Learning Layers Technology Challenge: how to facilitate SRL by technology? • individualized approach • right balance between freedom and guidance Aim: integrating guidance & reflection
  17. 17. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 17 Learning Layers Integrated Solution Integration of Personal Learning Environments – flexibility Recommender Systems – providing nudges (alert behaviour in a predictable way, easy to avoid) Learning Analytics – supporting reflection Kravčík, M., & Klamma, R. (2011). On psychological aspects of learning environments design. In Towards Ubiquitous Learning (EC-TEL).
  18. 18. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 18 Learning Layers ROLE SRL Process Model Miloš Kravčík, Ralf Klamma (2014). Self-Regulated Learning Nudges. International Workshop on Decision Making and Recommender Systems. Bolzano, Italy, September 18-19, 2014.
  19. 19. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 19 Learning Layers Personal Learning Environment PLE describes the tools, communities, and services that constitute the individual educational platforms learners use to direct their own learning and pursue educational goals LMS – course-centric vs. PLE – learner-centric: • Extension of individual research • Students in charge of their learning process • self-direction, responsibility • Promotes authentic learning (incorporating expert feedback) • Student’s scholarly work + own critical reflection + the work and voice of others • Web 2.0 influence on educational process • customizable portals/dashboards, iGoogle, My Yahoo! • Learning is a collaborative exercise in collection, orchestration, remixing, & integration of data into knowledge building • Emphasis on metacognition in learning
  20. 20. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 20 Learning Layers ROLE Cognitive Learning Strategies Nussbaumer, A., Dahrendorf, D., Schmitz, H. C., Kravčík, M., Berthold, M., & Albert, D. (2014). Recommender and guidance strategies for creating personal mashup learning environments. Computer Science and Information Systems, 11(1), 321-342.
  21. 21. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 21 Learning Layers ROLE Metacognitive Learning Strategies Nussbaumer, A., Dahrendorf, D., Schmitz, H. C., Kravčík, M., Berthold, M., & Albert, D. (2014). Recommender and guidance strategies for creating personal mashup learning environments. Computer Science and Information Systems, 11(1), 321-342. Nudges
  22. 22. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 22 Learning Layers ROLE Metacognitive Learning Strategies Nussbaumer, A., Kravcik, M., Renzel, D., Klamma, R., Berthold, M., & Albert, D. (2014). A Framework for Facilitating Self-Regulation in Responsive Open Learning Environments. arXiv preprint arXiv:1407.5891. Learning Analytics
  23. 23. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 23 Learning Layers Evaluation What is evaluated Methodology Who is evaluated Time frame Learning Outcome, Usability, Workload learning task, questionnaires on usability and workload, knowledge tests 33 students participating at a study short term Adoption of SRL (qualitative) reports from teachers or tutors doing learning courses Approx. 500 users of ROLE test beds mid term Usage of ROLE platform and adoption of SRL (quantitative) ROLE Sandbox usage data analysis Approx. 1400 users of ROLE Sandbox long term [mk1]Nice, good to add that for the other rows. Outcomes: behavioural changes have limits and require long term research Nussbaumer, A., Kravcik, M., Renzel, D., Klamma, R., Berthold, M., & Albert, D. (2014). A Framework for Facilitating Self-Regulation in Responsive Open Learning Environments. arXiv preprint arXiv:1407.5891.
  24. 24. Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke M. Kravcik TELGalicia March 2015 Slide 24 Learning Layers Conclusion SRL is crucial for cultivation of lifelong learning competences How to facilitate SRL by technology? • individualized approach • right balance between freedom and guidance Proposed solution: PLE • recommendations • reflection How to evaluate SRL (in informal settings)?

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