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  1. 1. MEMORY… By BNYS 3rd year SVYASA
  2. 2. CONTENTS…  Introduction  Definition  What is memory…..???  Sensory memory  Short term memory  Long term memory  Memory is classifies into two types  1. Explicit memory  2. Implicit memory
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Memory is the processes by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved • Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli • Storage is the second memory stage or process
  4. 4. DEFINITION • Memory is defined as the ability to recall the past experience • It is also defined as retention of learned materials • Some memories remain only for few seconds • Others last for hours, days, months or years together
  5. 5. SENSORY MEMORY  Sensory memory corresponds approximately to the initial 200–500 millisecond after an item is perceived  sensory memory that briefly stores an image which has been perceived for a small duration
  6. 6. COUNT…  This entails that we maintain information over periods of time  This is the retrieval of information that we have stored
  8. 8.  Generally , memory is also classified as:-  Short term memory  Long term memory
  9. 9. SHORT-TERM MEMORY  Short-term memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute without rehearsal  Short-term memory is believed to rely mostly on an acoustic code for storing information
  10. 10. COUNT…  It is the recalling the events that happened very recently, within hours or days  There is another from of short term memory called working memory  It is a very short period on the basis of which an action is executed
  12. 12. LONG-TERM MEMORY  The storage in sensory memory and short-term memory generally have a strictly limited capacity and duration  Long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration  This information is said to be stored in long-term memory
  13. 13. COUNT…  It is otherwise called remote memory  It is the recalling of the events of weeks, months, years or sometimes lifetime  Examples are recalling first day of schooling, birthday celebration of previous year, picnic enjoyed last week
  14. 14. LONG-TERM MEMORY Long term memory Explicit Implicit non- declarative declarative Episodic Somatic Procedural (Idea, Facts (Words and Emotional (skill) etc…) concepts etc…)
  15. 15. MEMORY IS CLASSIFIES INTO TWO TYPES  1. Explicit memory  2. Implicit memory
  17. 17. EXPLICIT MEMORY  Explicit memory It is otherwise know as declarative memory  It is defined as the memory that involves conscious recollection of past experience  The information stored may be about a particular event that happened at a particular time and place  Examples :-  Recollection of a birthday party celebrated three days  Explicit memory involves hippocampus and medial part of temporal lobe
  19. 19. IMPLICIT MEMORY  It is defined as the memory in which past experience is utilized without conscious awareness  It helps to perform various skilled activities properly  For example, cycling, driving, playing tennis,dancing,typing
  20. 20.  Depending upon the duration , memory is classified into three types  Sensory memory  Primary memory  Secondary memory
  22. 22. SENSORY MEMORY  It is the ability to retain sensory signals in the sensory areas of brain  It is the initial stage of memory  It resembles working memory
  23. 23. PRIMARY MEMORY  It is the memory of facts, words, numbers, letters or other information recalled for a few seconds to few minutes at a time  One need not search or squeeze through the mind but this memory is easily replaced by new bits of memory Example:---
  24. 24. SECONDARY MEMORY  It is storage of information in the brain for a longer period  The information could be recalled after hours, days, months or years  It also called fixed memory or permanent memory  It resembles long term memory
  25. 25. SENSORY MEMORY  Sensory Memory: Storing an exact copy of incoming information for less than a second; the first stage of memory  Icon: A fleeting mental image or visual representation  Echo: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system
  26. 26. TECHNIQUES USED TO ASSESS INFANT’S MEMORY  Infants do not have the language ability to report on their memories  So, verbal reports cannot be used to assess very young children’s memory
  27. 27. TECHNIQUES USED TO ASSESS OLDER CHILDREN AND ADULTS' MEMORY  Paired associate learning  Free recall  Recognition  Detection Paradigm
  28. 28. PAIRED ASSOCIATE LEARNING  During this task a subject would be asked to study a list of words and then sometime later they will be asked to recall
  29. 29. FREE RECALL  Free recall is a basic paradigm in the psychological study of memory  The recall period typically lasts a few minutes, and can involve spoken or written recall  Items are usually presented one at a time for a short duration
  30. 30. RECOGNITION  Remember a list of words or pictures  List of alternatives that were not presented in the original list
  31. 31. DETECTION PARADIGM  Individuals are shown a number of objects and colors samples
  32. 32. PHYSIOLOGY  Brain areas involved in the neuroanatomy of memory such as the hippocampus  Learning and memory are attributed to changes in neuronal synapses  The hippocampus is important for explicit memory  Also important for memory consolidation
  33. 33. FUNCTION OF HIPPOCAMPUS  The hippocampus from the olfactory bulb  The second major line of thought relates the hippocampus to memory  Changes in synaptic connections in the hippocampus  Hippocampus plays some sort of important role in memory
  34. 34. COUNT…  Hippocampus damage may also cause memory loss and problems with memory storage.
  35. 35. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE OF MEMORY  Encoding of working memory involves the spiking of individual neurons induced by sensory input  working memory signals in both medial temporal lobe  strong relationship between working memory and long-term memory
  36. 36. MEMORY IN INFANCY  A growing body of research now indicates that infants as young as 6-months can recall information after a 24-hour delay
  37. 37. DISORDERS  Loss of memory is known as amnesia  Alzheimer's disease  Parkinson's disease  Hyperthymesia  Korsakoff's syndrome  Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
  39. 39. PARKINSON'S DISEASE •Also affect memory and cognition
  40. 40. HYPERTHYMESIA  Also affect memory and cognition  Affects an individual's autobiographical memory  That they cannot forget small details that otherwise would not be stored
  41. 41. KORSAKOFF'S SYNDROME  Known as Korsakoff's psychosis, amnesic- confabulatory syndrome  Organic brain disease that adversely affects memory
  42. 42. TIP-OF-THE-TONGUE PHENOMENON  Common temporary failure of word retrieval from memory