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ILM Level 5 docx revision no 1

ILM Level 5
Becoming an
Effective Leader
E a s t m a n C h e m i c a l C o m p a n y
C a n d i d a t e n u m b e r
Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 1
 Company background
 ...
Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 2
Company Background,
Eastman chemical company was founded in Kingsport Tenness...

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ILM Level 5 docx revision no 1

  1. 1. ILM Level 5 Becoming an Effective Leader E a s t m a n C h e m i c a l C o m p a n y C a n d i d a t e n u m b e r BCN7926 Stuart Rogerson A studyof my leadershipstylesandhowto manage effectivelyusingvarious skillsincluding empowermentdelegationandemotional intelligence
  2. 2. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 1 Contents INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFORMATION  Company background SECTION 1 SECTION 1.1  Leadership Evaluations SECTION 1.2  Theories of emotional intelligence SECTION 2 SECTION 2.1  Setting direction and communication SECTION 2.2  Motivation, Empowermentand Delegation APPENDICES Bibliography
  3. 3. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 2 Introduction Company Background, Eastman chemical company was founded in Kingsport Tennessee in 1920, by George Eastman, it was formally known as Eastman Kodak, Eastman Chemical Company was spun off in 1994 and became a public traded company the company now own and operate sites throughout the world employing approximately 13500 personnel over 43 manufacturing sites and serving over 100 countries Eastman Chemicals Company’s business is divided into five segments,  Additives and functional products  Adhesives and Plasticizers  Advanced materials  Specialty Fluids and intermediates  Fibers The Manufacturing Site at Workington falls into the company’s fibres business the site produces Cellulose Acetate Tow which is used in the manufacture of filter tips for cigarettes, it has been producing Acetate Tow on the Workington site since 1968, originally as a joint venture between Eastman Chemicals and Filtrona Chemicals, the operation was known as Ectona Fibres ltd, Eastman bought out Filtrona and became the sole owner of the operation in 1984 Eastman Chemical Workington primary supplies acetate tow to Large Cigarettes Company’s such as British American Tobacco (BAT) Imperial Tobacco and Philip Morris International based at manufacturing sites in Western and Eastern Europe, Russia and Turkey the Workington manufacturing site employs, approximately 130 people of which, 90 of those are on a shift system split over 6 crews of 14 men and a team manager. In 2005 Eastman Chemicals invested over $100 million to expand the Workington site, the expansion came online in 2008, increasing production volume by 40%,
  4. 4. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 3 My Role as a manager within the organisation, I currently work as a Shift Team Manager at Eastman Chemicals Ltd based at the Workington Plant in Cumbria. I joined the company in 2008 as a process operator which was part of the expansion recruitment drive and in 2012 I was appointed manufacturing Shift Team Manager for Crew E reporting directly to the Site super-intendant. I have a crew of 14 operators that are split into five different job roles (Department Organization, appendix 1) whom operate a continuous manufacturing process on the production of acetate tow 365 days a year, operating on a 12 hour shift system over 6 crews, My main Management duties include safety checks, coaching individuals, assisting with training, monitoring of critical process operations, process audits, crew and site wide health and safety audits and best practise, man power deployment, co-ordination with engineers and process operators, and planners overseeing a safe work permit system, and emergency planning and crew development, holiday planning, and crew administration and time keeping and Site wide emergency Crew leader The role is very fluid with the shift manager having to deal with breakdowns, unusual events and issues which can often arise on a shift that require immediate action, such as critical equipment failure to operator injury and personal issues that can affect the working environment. To understand how I am perceived as a manager and a leader, and how I perceive myself I have undertaken various management style analyses and studied various theories, of which are analysed over the following pages
  5. 5. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 4 1.1 My Leadership Evaluations In 2011 I completed the Gallup’s Clifton’s Strength finder 2.0 assessment (Rath T, 2007 Gallup press LTD 2008) the strength finder assessment studies 34 talents the first 5 are your Key talents are what comes natural and the following 7 are your fall back strengths which is something you may not be in your comfort zone doing but will do so as and when required. My top 5 talent results are as follows and my interpretation of how it fits in my role as a Manager. 1. Achiever – as an Achiever you are seen to work hard and take satisfaction from being busy and productive, within the role as a team manager it is important to lead by example and show how productive we can be 2. Input – self-development is a major factor within the company, I require the support of my team so I can learn from them and help me develop more effective management styles and a stronger knowledge base 3. Strategic –in my current role each individual requires a certain care and development with a strategy for dealing with each person as an individual than can help me develop my team more effectively 4. Developer –I see my team as my strength they are also what I am ultimately judged on and identifying each individuals strength and developing those strengths to their maximum potential will ultimately create stronger teams 5. Learner – in a learner role I am not afraid to try and learn new skills and self- develop myself and try to understand new things. Of the 34 key talents the top 5 are then split into four sub categories known as “Four Domains of leadership strength” EXECUTING INFLUENCING RELATIONSHIP BUILDING STRATIGIC THINKING Achiever Activator Adaptability Analytical Arranger Command Developer Context Belief Communication Connectedness Futuristic Consistency Completion Empathy Ideation Deliberative Maximise Harmony Input Discipline Self-assurance Include Intellection Focus Significance Individualization Learner Responsibility WOO Positivity Strategic Restorative Relator
  6. 6. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 5 1 1 3 Source – (Strength Finder 2.0, Tom Rath Gallup Printing Press 1st edition 2007) “Leaders with great Strategic Thinking strengths are the ones who keep us all focused on what could be. They are constantly absorbing and analysing information and helping the team make better decisions. People with strength in this domain continually stretch our thinking for the future,” (Rath T, Conchie B, Strength based leadership Gallup Press Ltd 2008 Page 26) Within this area, a leader using strategic strength will likely explain how past events are relevant to a current situation, a leader with a learner will always try to find out what and or how a situation developed so it can be recalled and used in the future when the time is right, and a input leader will usually see countless opportunities for growth based on information received from the team, or the situation, To further build on this I carried out another Behavior test “Your Leadership Legacy by Robert M. Galford and Regina Fazio Maruca” ( this used as series of questions to build a profile the scoring was as follows • Ambassador – your score is 21 points out of 25 • Advocate – your score is 16 out of 25 • People Mover – your score is 17 out of 25 • Truth-Seeker – your score 19 out of 25 • Creative builder – your score is 17 out of 25 • Experienced guide – your score is 20 out of 25 My Top Attribute is an Ambassador “Ambassadors instinctively know how to handle a variety of situations with grace. They tend to be the people diffusing nasty situations. The ones getting involved in conflicts on behalf of broad constituencies, as opposed for their own benefit. They are apt to be persistent in a gentle way -- to be persuasive and at the same time respectful”. ( post assessment 17th October 2013) This Statement can be related the strength finder profile of Strategic thinking, working as a team player and standing up for my team which is important to me as I see them as a representation of me and if issues need raised I feel I represent my team and will absorb a lot of the criticism and then tactful on how I approach individuals when feeding back criticism from other sources, as the team is the key to our success. To look deeper into how my team and I work I used some questionaries’ (see appendix 2)based around McGregor’s 1960 X-Y theory, in which he argues that that the style of management adopted is a function of the managers attitudes towards people and
  7. 7. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 6 assumptions about human nature and behavior, the theory centers around two polar opposites “The Central theory around theory X is Direction and control, through a centralized system of organization and the exercise of authority” “The Central principle of theory Y is the integration of the individual and organizational Goals” (Mullins L, Management & organizational Behavior Pearson educational press 2013 Page 457) Based on the questionnaires my team scored me out of 5 over 15 questions average for my management style was as Follows (taken as an average) Theory X Theory Y 0---------------15---------------45---------------60---------------75 53 The questionnaires also looked at how each individual liked to be managed the results are (taken as an Average) Theory X Theory Y 0---------------15---------------45---------------60---------------75 59 Generally the feeling was I was using a theory Y style of management and most of the operational team thought I was in line with how they like to be managed effectively. However, the style of management from X and Y behavior will change throughout the working environment a theory Y manager will be required to use a theory X approach with some individuals as there are team members, that no matter the nature of the job will only respond to a direct and controlled management style in which case the manager can and rightly assume the Theory X assumptions about these individuals theory X is also important during emergency situations, where directing or taking a leading role could become critical.
  8. 8. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 7 I have also completed Hersey and Blanchard Situational leadership Questionnaire which explores the journey of management and leadership I Fall into the Category of Selling and coaching (High task/High Relationship quadrant) in situational leadership, but I feel this can change throughout the working day, when dealing with individuals or when focusing on tasks that need attention, For Example over an average day During a morning brief specific tasks will be given out, and what expectations are required with regard to time and Safety policies and what to do and how to do it, so this would be Quadrant one – High Task/Low relationship, Moving through the day, it is not uncommon for operators to encounter problems or issues that they need support with, instead of dealing with those issues directly, I will often ask other operators to get involved to help each other solve a situation, there for I will have moved from the Directing/telling aspects to a quadrant four the Delegation aspect low task/low relationship A common example of a Low task/High Relationship is during injury accidents in the work place First aiders often know the situation and procedures but are often unwilling to make that call, for this I would move into the Low task/High relationship and open discussions with the first aiders the option they know are available and support their theory’s during discussions as they will usually answers their own questions Hersey and Blanchard’s theory gives an accurate description of how we change our styles to suit certain situations
  9. 9. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 8 1.2 Theories of Emotional Intelligence and effect on self and others To understand how behaviors affect other people I have researched Various theory’s Gardner, whom wrote some of the earlier work on Emotional intelligence, the 1983 book “frames of mind” published the multiple intelligence Model, Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory centered on 7 aspects of intelligence This simple grid diagram illustrates Howard Gardner's model of the seven Multiple Intelligences at a glance. intelligence type capability and perception Linguistic words and language Logical-Mathematical logic and numbers Musical music, sound,rhythm Bodily-Kinesthetic body movement control Spatial-Visual images and space Interpersonal other people's feelings Intrapersonal self-awareness To establish my own multiple intelligence profile I carried out an online profile examination at My personal score was as follows intelligence type Linguistic 30 Logical-Mathematical 29 Musical 19 Bodily-Kinesthetic 26 Spatial-Visual 29 Interpersonal 28 Intrapersonal 33 Gardner gave a breakdown of each intelligence type, listed is a breakdown of my most dominant
  10. 10. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 9 7. INTRAPERSONAL Intelligence description “self-awareness, personal cognizance, personal objectivity, the capability to understand oneself, one's relationship to others and the world, and one's own need for, and reaction to change” Typical roles, preferences, potential “arguably anyone who is self-aware and involved in the process of changing personal thoughts, beliefs and behavior in relation to their situation, other people, their purpose and aims - in this respect there is a similarity to Maslow's Self-Actualization level, and again there is clear association between this type of intelligence and what is now termed 'Emotional Intelligence' or EQ” The emotional intelligence concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence, is too narrow; that there are wider areas of Emotional Intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are. Success requires more than IQ (Intelligence Quotient), which has tended to be the traditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essential behavioral and character elements. We've all met people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially and inter-personally inept. And we know that despite possessing a high IQ rating, success does not automatically follow” A Development of some of Gardner’s ideas was made by Goleman, who published Ground- breaking work on Emotional Intelligence, Goleman agreed that the classic view of intelligence was far too narrow, he felt that emotional qualities of the individual should be considered, he identified the key characteristics as “Ability’s such as being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustrations; to control impulse and delay gratification; to regulate ones moods and keep distress from swamping the ability to think; to empathise and to hope” (Goleman D. Emotional intelligence, Bloomsbury (1996) Page 34) Emotional Intelligence has received considerable focus over the last few years as the concept has been identified with managing people effectively, Goleman Argues that a more Empathetic style of management is the way forward within businesses. Understanding the implications of your emotions and that of team members within the workplace, and your own ability to self asses your inner resources, are the key to becoming an emotionally indigent leader, being able to read emotions is an important skill for all managers and leaders to employ, it requires them to understand the individual within the team, and the way in which they react to each and every situation. “After all, we work in structures flatter than ever. We have to be much faster on our feet with both colleagues and clients and whatever the team structure, there is increasing proximity for us to build the relationships we need – fast. In this context emotional intelligence is the glue that holds people and teams together” (Landale, A the British Journal of administrative management, February/March 2007 page 24-5)
  11. 11. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 10 but for all the positives of emotional intelligence there is also dark side R Alexander, argues in an article “the dark side of emotional intelligence” management today, April 2011 page 46- 50 what happens when people start using it to manipulate others in order to further their own careers, those who have and will, use the dark side of Emotional intelligence will examine the emotions of others, but be adept at controlling their emotional displays Alexander gives this example “Bosses with negative EI in mind may focus on employee’s emotions for cynical purpose, and employees, looking to profit by dark EI, may constantly scrutinise a superior emotions for ways to enhance how they are estimated by attuning to the superiors state of mind” There are many employees and managers, who knowing or not will be using the dark side of EI for their own gains, everyone knows someone who will say a certain thing in front of a superior to be noticed, or an employee who will spring to life if he hears a supervisor in the area, or on a patrol. To better understand myself and my own emotions I have completed the DISC evaluation based on William Marsden’s DISC assessment theory, the theory centers around four different personality traits: Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Compliance the theory grades your natural style versus the adapted style. Natural Style Adapted Style Dominance – 15 Dominance – 3 Influence – 45 Influence – 33 Steadiness – 87 Steadiness – 77 Compliance – 86 Compliance – 87 My Style adapted style (work based) isn’t too different from my natural style, which would indicate I was comfortable within my role, as the manufacturing site relies heavily on strict manufacturing guidelines for its product it is important to follow the correct procedures and any team manager must be seen to be calm and steady whilst under pressure of site emergency’s and full plant shut downs. Looking deeper into my Disc profile the Book “the 8 dimensions of Leadership; DISC strategy’s for becoming an effective leader” by Jeffery Sugerman, the DISC profiles are broken down to 8 leadership profiles and are based around a circular model, the concept that an effective leader has a natural style but should be able to Flow any section of the “pie” when
  12. 12. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 11 dealing with people and situations, but will naturally fall back into a their own default style, under normal circumstance After taking the test at ( My behavior profile was inclusive, “Inclusive leaders want to provide stability, to show concern for others, and, more than anything, to maintain a harmonious environment. they tend to be soft spoken, and they’re more likely to lead by example than with general, they do a lot more listening than thinking than speaking, and because they tend to be modest, there careful not to impose on others. Inclusive leaders work carefully to make sure everything is done “just so” and they often shy away from radical changes and adventurous ideas. They’re more concerned with being supportive and collaborative, and they’re usually willing to go the extra mile for anyone who needs help”. (Sugarman J, Scullard M, WilhelmE, 2011 the 8 dimensions of leadership Inscape Publishing 1st edition p139) I feel that an inclusive style of leadership is an accurate descriptor of me right now but it isn’t where I need to stay, as a leader and a manager I need to be more multi-dimensional. A look this management style in more detail reveals six characteristics of an “inclusive management Style” and how they can be exploited and what areas my short comings are and although some people may see these as strengths others will see them as a weakness,  A desire to accept -  A desire to surround yourself with the familiar  A desire to accommodate others  A tendency to internalize problems  A desire for harmony  A lower need for achievement and status To fully develop myself I need to adapt a more commanding approach in certain situations which is on the opposite side to commanding on the DISC leadership model which in affect is the furthest away from my comfort zone. Although an inclusive management style can be seen as weaker by other more commanding or high dominance leaders, I feel my style works well in my current role and for my team, to establish how the team feel about the created working climate an assessment of me was passed to my team of operators, they completed the “communication Climate Inventory”
  13. 13. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 12 James I costigan and Marther A Schmeider which looks at the working environment created by supervision it explores if the environment is a supportive or defensive atmosphere, Gibb identified six characteristics of a "supportive environment" and six characteristics of a "defensive one." Gibb affirmed that employees are influenced by the communication climate in the organization. He characterized a supportive climate as one having pro- visionalism, empathy, equality, spontaneity, problem orientation, and description and a defensive climate as having evaluation, control, strategy, neutrality, superiority, and certainty. From the Questionnaires the average for my shift team is as follows Supportive environment based on factors – pro-visionalism, empathy, equality, spontaneity, problem orientation DEFENSIVE DEFENSIVE TO NEUTRAL NEUTRAL TO SUPPORTIVE SUPPORTIVE 87 Defensive environment based on factors - evaluation, control, strategy, neutrality, superiority, and certainty. In both cases the team has a supportive structure, which works well allowing for an environment where it is possible for the team manager to support the team as well as develop them, within the team working it this environment, it would also allow for an open and trustworthy relationship that keeps dialogue, honest and valued. SUPPORTIVE NEUTRAL TO SUPPORTIVE DEFENSIVE TO NEUTRAL DEFENSIVE 32
  14. 14. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 13 2.1 Setting Direction and communication Eastman Chemical Company’s Vision Statement “To be an outperforming chemical company by delivering growth for our employees customers, owners and community’s” Many companies have “vision” and “mission statements” and are often created and framed around a working environment but without direction from leaders they are often soon forgotten and all that’s left are empty meaningless words. As a leader of my team, direction that I receive comes from many areas such as the needs of the production environment, from my direct manager the Site Super-intendant (see appendix 1 department organization) and from the employee relations guides (ERGs) that the company works too, on induction to the company new employees are taken through the expectations of the company. The ERGs, they are is what is essentially the backbone, a blueprint of rights and wrongs, and consequences, that keeps every single employee heading in the right direction and keeping focused on the rules, and our expectations as leaders, they act as a point of reference to fall back on and take direction from when making decisions, that can affect the employee for example, Timekeeping, attendance, even general attitudes to each other But rules and regulations do not tell the full story, the general tasks for the day to day running of the plant, crew development long and short term goals can and regularly do change. As a leader should be able communicate effectively, John Kotters work “leading change” is a blueprint that is easy to follow and can fully prepare an employee before the vision or change is even created, which means managing a change will be easier in the long run. Kotter’s Model on change follows 8 simple steps and can be applied to any number of scenarios, currently Eastman Chemical Company needs to make some substantial changes around the Pension scheme we currently have, where as we are moving away from an non- contributory pension which all employees currently enjoy, to a Defined benefit scheme in which all employees will have to take some of the financial burden, of the pension the site at Workington is unique in the fact it is the only site with the entire company to have this noncontributory pension. We will now look how Kotter’s model fits within this current scenario within our working environment
  15. 15. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 14 STEP 1 -Increase urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant  In the case of the pension’s the current benefits are unsustainable for the company, and the fund in time would risk a collapse or significant monetary bale out, this was communicated, via letters and pension statements, and information meetings STEP 2 -Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels.  Working Groups have been formed to look at all pension options for the employees, looking for better alternatives, the pension teams that have been formed are from all areas of operations, staff and plant with external guidance from 3rd parties STEP 3 -Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency.  From all the working group meetings, each idea has been adjusted to fit business needs, before the most beneficial aspects or the strongest financially robust ideas are forward. STEP 4-Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to people's needs. De-clutter communications - make technology work for you rather than against.  Creating The vision, as the new contributory will be a financial burden, strong and decisive leadership is required one on one meets to answer concerns, a door open policy, but no waffling just the plain facts, the change is essential STEP 5-Empower action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognize progress and achievements.  Empowering the department figure heads to lead the change, be vision ambassadors reinforcing the change, but accepting and giving constructive feedback. STEP 6-Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-size chunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones.  Show how the new pension is performing, how the site is performing in relation to other Eastman sites, without the significant finical burden of the pension, create visions for the sustainability of the site STEP 7-Don't let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and future milestones.  Because the old pension system was in trouble, keep the employees up to date with the new system and inform how it is performing, for their futures, this should be
  16. 16. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 15 done via regular information meetings, so if change is required again, the employee will be more prepared STEP 8-Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion, and new change leaders. Weave change into culture  The final step is, make it permanent, the new scheme will be used in recruitment in the future, and the sustainability of the site, the short term it may have looked bleak but the long term goals are what counts Kotter’s system works well, but most people don’t like change, some will actively resist change whilst Kotter’s model works extremely well for managers and leaders trying to implement change, it is important to understand and consider the emotions of the individual experiencing the change and direct them effectively as individuals throughout the change. The Kubler–Ross Change curve explains how people’s emotions are effected by change although originally intended to explain people’s emotions during a time of grief or loss it works well within the working environment, ( “Coaching emotions During Transition and change” Denial/Shock – “I just can’t believe this…….” As an effective leader this should be expected, listened to, and not judged as a negative as the case for change should always be at the forefront, but all information should be shared, allowing communication Anger/Frustration –“You can’t do this, I won’t let you!” At this stage an effective leader, should allow for some venting but should not tolerate destructive behavior that could destabilize the team, offer assistance and guide where appropriate
  17. 17. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 16 Depression/grief –“well I just don’t care” or “I can’t be bothered” The lowest point of the curve from here leaders need to support, provide encouragement, and non-confrontational, show there is “light at the end of the tunnel” use other operators/situations to show how they have come through it Experiment/Bargaining – “if we could just go back to…..” or “how about I do…..” At this point it is important to listen, but communicate the reality of the situation and why the change was necessary, focus of the future and not on what once was. Integration – “well I am going to make the best of it” or “well there’s nothing I can do” Acknowledge positive responses; keep the team member on track, look to his goals and what they can influence within the business. Communication is the key to success in managing change and taking and receiving direction, Transaction analysis is one of the most popular ways of explaining interpersonal communications , developed by Eric Berne, it is a model of people and relationships although Berne, initially used it as a method of psychotherapy, it has been used to great effect by organizations. Transaction analysis has two assumptions  All events, and feelings are stored within us so we can experience the events and feelings of our pasts  Personality is made up of three ego states; they manifest themselves, in gesture tone of voice and action. The three Ego states Adult Ego state – behavior that concerns our thought process, in this state we are rational, reasonable, seeking information and receiving facts Parent Ego State – behavior that concerns the attitudes, in this state refers to wright and wrong, critical, and how we care, Child Ego State – Behavior that demonstrates our feelings, this may be having fun, playing and rebelling, The majority of the time the working environment is Adult/Adult based transaction where team members adopted an Adult ego state when addressing each other, but this can change in an environment such as an appraisal, it might turn form Adult/Adult to Parent/Child in
  18. 18. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 17 where the manager is critical, and the team member is, rebelling or not taking things seriously. How I Communicate - Conclusion The majority of the time, I will communicate with the team in small work groups or one on one, the shift teams are usually split into 5 work groups (see Shift team breakdown appendix 3) at the start of the day I will find out what task are required for that day, I will look at other factors that may affect their working day, I will then visit each area, early on in a shift and communicate verbally with the members of that working party, this is done in an open way so the operations team can discuss any concerns freely(Adult, Adult Ego state), depending on the task that I have explained I will sometimes offer written instructions or guidelines this can be done at the time of our discussions or backed up via email, during discussions some team members will usually take notes on issues that are relevant to them, I will whilst talking to my team about any tasks they are to carry out, I will find myself asking “open Questions” usually begin with Who, What, where, How, this again allows for a free flowing discussion, and is usually much more constructive, it helps build a rapport with my team too. On a more formal basis each morning we have a morning meeting, usually 3 hours into a shift, this involves department heads and operations, these are much more structured, but admittedly I do not have much input during these meetings as it is aimed at the department heads getting their own areas covered for work tasks. Sometimes team members need to be addressed for issues they may have caused themselves I have a firm belief on this, I will talk to them formally but privately I will always be calm and never raise my voice, all conversations like this will usually be in a private office, I like to listen to all the facts before I make any judgments, I will again use open questions, and control my body language as best I can. Generally I feel my communication skills are quite strong, I have built a strong rapport with my team, who feel they can talk to me about whatever they need to, they also seem to share the same sense of “team Sprit” that I try and envisage If anything perhaps my communication style is too open and honest, but my team will always respond to my direction, but too some other managers looking from outside my team they may see me as being a little too informal, or even too open. As some other leaders lack the engagement that I have with my team.
  19. 19. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 18 2.2 Understanding Motivation Empowerment and Delegation To understand individuals within the workplace first it is important to understand what drives the individuals this explored in Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory first published in 1943, although Maslow did not originally intend the “Needs Hierarchy” to be applied to the working environment, it remains a popular theory of motivation at work. The theory suggests that most people have these basic needs in that order but in reality this order is not fixed, for some people there will be a reversal of some segments of the pyramid, for example self-esteem may be more important ant than love to some people, some people can be totally devoid of love and belonging, so it may not even factor, “Once lower level needs have been satisfied, (for example Physiological & Safety), giving more of the same does not provide motivation. Individuals advance up the Hierarchy as each lower level need becomes satisfied, therefor to provide motivation for a change in behavior the manager must direct attention to the next higher level of needs that seek satisfaction” (Steers R.M and Porter L.W motivation and work behavior, McGraw-Hill 1991 Fifth edition page 35) John Adair founder of the action cantered leadership model points out that presenting Maslow’s pyramid model gives the impression that the greatest needs are in the lower levels, Adair suggests the pyramid should be inverted as physiological needs are limited, but there are fewer limitation on the way up,
  20. 20. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 19 Alderfer built on Maslow’s theory, and developed the ERG theory, this condenses Maslow’s five levels into only three, and these levels are as follows, Existence needs are concerned with human existence and survival, and cover physiological and safety needs of a material nature Relatedness needs are concerned with relationships or social environment and cover love and belonging, relationships Growth Needs are concerned with the development of potential and cover self esteem (Alderfer, C P. Existence, relatedness, growth, collier Macmillan 2006 p 76) The ERG theory states that an employee’s behavior is motivated simultaneously by more than one need level. You might try to satisfy your growth needs even though your relatedness needs aren’t completely satisfied. Unlike Maslow’s model, the ERG theory includes a frustration-regression process for those who are unable to satisfy a higher need become frustrated and regress to the next lower need level. For example, if existence and relatedness needs have been satisfied, but growth need fulfillment has been blocked, the individual will become frustrated and relatedness needs will again emerge as the dominant source of motivation, this theory can be seen in my working environment where promotion or growth are effectively blocked, people will regress to their own personal needs, they motivate each other be forming friendship groups and in effected fulfilling their relatedness’ needs, Alderfer’s model does prove people can and do regress up and down the needs hierarchy Herzberg (1960) has a two factor theory, Hygiene and motivating factors, one set of factors if absent cause dissatisfaction, these factors are extrinsic to the job, these are the “hygiene factors” the other set of factors are related to the job content, and serve to motivate the individual, these are the motivators, the strength of these factors will affect feelings of satisfaction, or no satisfaction, For example – low pay is a ‘hygiene factor’, but high pay isn’t necessarily a ‘motivator’. Another example – the absence of (company) information is a hygiene factor, but when the information is provided it only removes the dissatisfaction, it doesn’t create satisfaction. In my working environment there are many “hygiene factors” currently the company is going through change which it needs to do to survive in the economic climate, two main hygiene factors that are at the for front of team members minds is a general sense of a lack of job security within the company, as Eastman has just completed a new manufacturing facility in China, this is being seen as a threat to our site here at Workington, but in reality, the operators don’t have the full facts and do not see it as the bigger picture, to remove some of the doubts, I am open and honest with the team, I have explained that the China project is a
  21. 21. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 20 joint venture, between Eastman and Chinese tobacco and Eastman only own 40% of that venture, but also I have shown the team members what has been invested at our site and what is to be invested in the company things such as infrastructure, now and in the future, now this hasn’t motived people but it does remove the sense of dis-satisfaction from the team, it is the same with second hygiene factor and that is pay and benefits, as the company goes through the restructuring of its pension scheme it is important to keep the team looking forward as the current pension cannot survive and having no pension is much worse than having a small contributory pension that can survive, again pointing this out isn’t motivational but it removes the sense of dis satisfaction allowing the motivator factors to thrive, The hygiene factors can be related to Maslow’s lower level needs,(Physiological & Safety) and the motivators to his higher level needs,(belonging, Esteem, self-actuation) hygiene factors are necessary to avoid unpleasantness at work, and to deny unfair treatment, To motivate my team members to give the best, I will try and give proper attention to the motivators factors, for example, I have had my team for just over 12 months and on taking over the team I identified the team members that where lacking motivation, one such operator felt he had been passed over for a job role change several times, he felt he was not part of the team, (Maslow’s 3rd level)in the current working environment , any job role advancement usually requires someone to leave a current role, but according to Hertzberg the motivators relate to what people are allowed to do, so a development opportunity was to engage him with something he was interested in, and I challenged him to come up with a new way in which we run our first aid systems at work, and how we identify our first aiders it was incredibly effective and today he is in affect a very different person, he had, in affect jumped up to Maslow’s 4th step and gained some Esteem, Vroom (Bell .J 2013) was on the other hand the first person to propose an expectancy theory aimed specifically at work based motivation Vrooms model is based around three key variables, the theory centres on the concept people prefer certain outcomes from their behaviours over others, they anticipate feelings of satisfaction should the preferred out comes are achieved vrooms key theory’s Valance – the value the individual places on the rewards based on their needs, goals, values and Sources of Motivation. Factors associated with the individual's valence for outcomes are values, needs, goals, preferences and Sources of Motivation Strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome. Instrumentality - is the belief that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met. This reward may come in the form of a pay increase, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment. Instrumentality is low when the reward is the same for all performances given.
  22. 22. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 21 Expectancy - is the belief thatone'seffortwill result in attainmentof desired performancegoals.Usually based on an individual'spast experience,self-confidence,and theperceived difficulty of theperformance standard orgoal. Factorsassociated with theindividual'sExpectancy perception areself-efficacy,goal difficulty,and control.Self-efficacy isthe person’sbelief abouttheir ability to successfully performa particularbehavior.Goaldifficulty happenswhen goalsare settoo high or performanceexpectations thatare madetoo difficult are mostlikely to lead to low expectancy.Controlisone'sperceived control overperformance.In orderforexpectancy to be high,individualsmustbelieve thatthey havesome degreeof controlover theexpected outcome. ( 17/11/13) Vroom’s expectancy theory differs from the theories of Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg; Vroom’s expectancy theory does not provide specific suggestions on what motivates organization members. Instead, Vroom’s theory provides a process of variables that reflects individual differences in work motivation. In this model, employees do not act simply because of strong internal drives, unmet needs, or the application of rewards. Instead, they are rational people whose beliefs, perceptions, and probability estimates influence their behavior from a management standpoint the expectancy theory has some important implications for motivating employees. It identifies several important things that can be done to motivate employees by altering the person’s effort-to-performance expectancy, performance-to-reward expectancy, and reward valences, we as team managers are limited to what we can give as a reward as regulations are quite tight but one example of Vrooms theory can be applied to situations where operator will outperform in his job role by actively seeking potential issues and can be rewarded as an individual by way of a gift check,(instrumentality) thus for filling his performance to reward expectancy. A major factor that can affect the expectancy theory is previous experiences, an operator who has had a bad experience in the past for example, during a unscheduled plant shut down, will inevitably be demotivated it is at this point team members are the most difficult to motivate, whereas team members who have had good experiences of easy startups or have experienced lots of variables are a lot easier to motivate as they have “seen it all before” and free canteen vouchers that can be issued are much appreciated and meet their expectancy needs, it is these employees that can help “rally” demotivated individuals as they can share their positive experience and change the demotivated team members expectancy. Motivation is an individual issue, and it might on face value seem like money is a huge motivational factor, but to some extent I agree with Maslow’s theory when put into the following context
  23. 23. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 22 “When prehistoric man first took shelter in a cave and lit a fire, he was satisfying his lowest level physiological and safety needs. When a Buddhist achieves a state of nirvana, they are satisfying the fifth and highest – self actualisation….the cave these days may be nice three bedroom semi with garden and garage, but the fact remains that once we’ve got enough to feed clothe and house our family’s money is a low level motivator for most people. The dash for cash is soon replaced by the desire for recognition, status and ultimately the need to express through work. (Saunders A “keep staff sweet” management today June 2003, p75) So without money as the traditional main motivator, we can look to the other skills we can use develop and help team members feel more valued without any financial burden to the company, the way in which we delegate and empower people is an essential motivational tool. Attempting to distinguish between empowerment and delegation is not that easy, however “Empowerment” is generally viewed as a more embracing term that describes a management style that allows the granting to some team members genuine additional power, giving team members the power to decide and act, empowered team members can even become self-managing, “delegation” is seen as the passing down the partnership of authority and responsibility to another person, however the person doing the delegating will still be responsible and accountable for the work, delegation usually leads to empowerment as trust builds, without delegation empowerment would not and could not exist, There are many benefits of empowerment and delegation, if properly handled delegation has many benefits for team members and managers, delegation should lead to the maximum use of manpower, and increase organisational performance, delegation frees up one of the most valuable resources for a manager and that is time, allowing the manager to complete the more important high level tasks, also making him more available for communications effectively allowing the manager to manage, delegation also provides a means of training and development, and it can be seen as a way to test a team members suitability for promotion or job role change, to see how they cope with extra responsibility and pressures, I find delegate more often to team members that I show the will to succeed who are generally self-motivated and responsible and who offer me the support that I need to continue to perform in my current role there are multiple tasks that I can delegate, many of these are small checks and safety audits, I can delegate to all members of my team, but the less reliable or less confident members of the team I will only delegate the most simple tasks until we establish a level of trust, I often check their work from time to time to ensure it is up to standard Delegation should also strengthen the workforce, by giving team members greater scope for action and opportunity’s to develop their ability’s, Delegation creates an atmosphere where team members, feel more involved in planning or decision making which in turn, and if handled properly can lead to an increase in moral, and in turn motivation
  24. 24. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 23 Empowering people is a matter of judgement and involves the question of direction, and trust, usually individuals that have been delegated a task, will be reviewed and assessed on how theory have performed, this may just be even in the form of the manager taking a mental note, as that trust levels and rapport builds the manager may grant more power, effectively empowering the individual to complete and self-review any task, the delegation to empowerment transition is usually seamless, empowerment for me is an important tool, and is not used enough in my current working environment, as previously mentioned I have used it to motivate a previously disengaged employee, by giving him the power to develop and present a new first aid system at work, for me empowerment goes hand in hand with motivation, and results are best achieved from empowered individuals Of course there are reasons delegation does not happen, Delegation is influenced by the managers perception of the individual, but delegation is also influenced by the team members perception of the reason for the delegation, the manager may think the team member is not capable of completing the task, the manager my fear being blamed for the team members mistakes, also on the flip side the manager may fear the team member may do an excellent job and show the manager in a bad light, this could be seen as a use of negative Emotional intelligence, as discussed in part 1.2 and is a reflection of the managers own insecurity’s A reluctance to delegate might arise from the manager’s belief in human nature and behaviour, as in McGregor’s theory X and Y, A manager who isn’t happy with delegation will find himself micromanaging an employee where a manager provides too much input, direction, and review of delegated work this to me is a general example of what happens in my current working environment, often team managers will delegate tasks to the operators, but then spent the rest of the time directly supervising them, making the delegation a pointless task, as the reason for delegation (to free time for team manager) is lost in the direct supervision or direction of the task. Empowerment is a question of balance a manager must be aware some team members are focused on personal empire building, and not operational objectives, the manager must above all else remain in control, giving empowerment creates a special manager-team member relationship and it is the mutual trust and the retention of control that allows this to work, control should not be so close as to fall into the micro-manager trap,
  25. 25. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 24 How I motivation and delegate conclusion My background is very different to the other team managers, who have all worked in a production environment most of their working lives, I however came from a retail environment, in which I worked most of my working life, this I feel gives me a slightly different perspective on how I motivate my team, I try to Motivate the team by breaking down the traditional barriers found within the production environment of the “them and us” scenarios that we are all familiar with, I do this by getting involved with some tasks that are deemed beneath other managers, for example, helping my team clean up a chemical spill or if am passing a production area I will actively help in the production process, I have tried to instil a “one inn all inn attitude” and generally it seems to be paying off, it works as a transaction I often find myself asking my team to do extra tasks, that are above and beyond the call of duty, but because of how I am willing to work with them they will always respond, usually without hesitation, of course there is always the odd exception, my options are very limited in what I can and can’t do for my team, but my shift team made a request to be allowed to listen to the radio on night shifts, this is currently a grey area within the rules, but I have allowed it, and have taken responsibility for that decision , but it does work as a hygiene factor(Hertzberg) as all operators feel it improves the working environment and helps on the long night shifts, At Christmas time there are two one hundred pound vouchers that are to be rewarded to individuals on the crew, it has always been a cloak and dagger experience, with the awardees not wanting to disclose if they had received them, after consulting with the team, they have decided not to have the as an individual prize but as a collective to be used to take the team out for a meal. I like to be involved with the individual members of my team, I have as stated before built a rapport with my team, I know them individually, by doing this I can see what makes them engaged, some thrive on competition, so I will challenge them sometimes just with mid conversation quip, for example I might drop into conversation another shift completed a task quicker than ours, those operators that are competitive will respond and raise their game, others motivation as they feel that the company has missed them out, I have gave those operators my support, and they are training an new roles, I have also formed from my team a small group who have been empowered to come up with a new first aider system, and from there they are focused on a task together and moving in the right direction, I have issued an empowerment questionnaire to my team, and although it is limited within the environment, of the 10 operators questioned 6 said they felt empowered to make some decisions without taking to myself or other managers, but it was task dependant, and
  26. 26. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 25 generally in the production environment they felt it was a requirement to speak with myself about any issues the encounter to protect me from not knowing the answers when my manager asks me questions regarding potential issues Although my team seem happy and focused, I feel I do not show my authority as much as I probably should, I would like greater flexibility to reward outstanding individuals, but without the cloak and dagger experience that seems to be interwoven into the fabric of the Eastman environment, and I would like better and more flexible working and development plans for new starters within the company, I all job roles it is difficult to offer total empowerment to all individuals, and this is maybe an issue I am missing.
  27. 27. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 26 Personal development Plan Area for improvement Goal Action Evidence Time scale Development of my leadership style Contuse to develop my style of leadership from coaching to delegation Be aware of how and what I am doing, be honest with myself ask for a critic Will find myself with more time and opportunity’s, complete, assessment again in future 6 months and review with team and or manager Develop a commanding leadership style Use a more commanding style of management as opposed to the inclusive Use the tools provided and step out of my comfort zone from time to time Will see an increase in my adapted dominance in a Disc Report Review on a 3 month basis, Don’t get caught up in others point scoring battles To be more aware of others using Emotional intelligence to score “points” Carry on developing my own EI so I can make better judgements on peers Will see a difference in how I am feeling, and be more alert Ongoing Improve direction Increase participation in team meetings Be more constructive during a meeting accept feedback, To feel more sure footed in meetings, increase in confidence ability to hold own Ask for feedback from peers
  28. 28. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 27 APPENDIX 1
  29. 29. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 28 APPENDIX 2 X-Y Theory’ Questionnaire Score the statements (5 = always, 4 = mostly, 3 = often, 2 = occasionally, 1 = rarely, 0 = never) To indicate whether the situation and management style is ‘X’ or ‘Y’: 1. My boss asks me politely to do things, gives me reasons why, and invites my suggestions. 2. I am encouraged to learn skills outside of my immediate area of responsibility. 3. I am left to work without interference from my boss, but help is available if I want it. 4. I am given credit and praise when I do good work or put in extra effort. 5. People leaving the company are given an 'exit interview' to hear their views on the organization. 6. I am incentivized to work hard and well. 7. If I want extra responsibility my boss will find a way to give it to me. 8. If I want extra training my boss will help me find how to get it or will arrange it. 9. I call my boss and my boss's boss by their first names. 10. My boss is available for me to discuss my concerns or worries or suggestions. 11. I know what the company's aims and targets are. 12. I am told how the company is performing on a regular basis. 13. I am given an opportunity to solve problems connected with my work. 14. My boss tells me what is happening in the organization. 15. I have regular meetings with my boss to discuss how I can improve and develop. Total score 60-75 = strong Y-theory management (effective short and long term) 45-59 = generally Y-theory management 16-44 = generally X-theory management 0 -15 = strongly X-theory management (autocratic, may be effective short-term, poor long-term) To indicate whether the person prefers being managed by ‘X’ or ‘Y’ style: 1. I like to be involved and consulted by my boss about how I can best do my job. 2. I want to learn skills outside of my immediate area of responsibility. 3. I like to work without interference from my boss, but be able to ask for help if I need it. 4. I work best and most productively without pressure from my boss or the threat of losing my job. 5. When I leave the company I would like an ‘exit interview’ to give my views on the organization. 6. I like to be incentivized and praised for working hard and well. 7. I want to increase my responsibility. 8. I want to be trained to do new things. 9. I prefer to be friendly with my boss and the management. 10. I want to be able to discuss my concerns, worries or suggestions with my boss or another manager. 11. I like to know what the company's aims and targets are. 12. I like to be told how the company is performing on a regular basis. 13. I like to be given opportunities to solve problems connected with my work. 14. I like to be told by my boss what is happening in the organization. 15. I like to have regular meetings with my boss to discuss how I can improve and develop. Total score 60-75 = strongly prefers Y-theory management 45-59 = generally prefers Y-theory management 16-44 = generally prefers X-theory management 0 -15 = strongly prefers X-theory management
  30. 30. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 29 Appendix 3 – Shift Crew E Specialist Roles Team Manager Stuart Rogerson Baler Team Steven Sharp Kevin Walsh Steven Tunstall John Scott Lab/QC team Martin Frizzle James Hymers Spinning Team Graham Fearon Garry Wilson Marc Taylor Crimper Team Andrew Burns Julian Plaza Dope/Utility Scott Thornthwaite Adrian Wigham Gary Denwood First Aiders Steven Tunstall Martin Frizzle Shippers Steven Sharp John Scott Kevin Walsh Permit Officers AndrewBurns JulianPlaza Scott Thornthwaite Adrian Wigham KevinWalsh
  31. 31. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 30 BIBLOGRAPHY BOOKS Alderfer, 2006 C P. Existence, relatedness, growth, collier Macmillan Goleman D. Emotional intelligence, Bloomsbury (1996) Knight, S. 2002/NLP at Work, London: Nicholas Brealey.. Mullins L, 2013Management & organizational Behavior Pearson educational Rath T 2007 Strength Finder 2.0, Gallup Printing Press 1st edition Rath T, Conchie B, 2008 Strength based leadership Gallup Press Steers R.M and Porter L.W 1991 motivation and work behavior, McGraw-Hill Fifth edition Sugarman J, Scullard M, WilhelmE, 2011 the 8 dimensions of leadership Inscape Publishing 1st edition Rose Charvet, S/1997/ Words that Change Minds, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt JOURNALS R Alexander April 2011 the dark side of emotional intelligence” management today, Landale, A February/March 2007 the British Journal of administrative management, Saunders A June 2003, “keep staff sweet” management today WEBSITES
  32. 32. Candidate Number BCN7926 Page 31 HANDOUTS Bell,J/2013/TTI success insights DISC profile Bell,J/2013/John P.Kotters 8 step model Bell,J/2013/hersey & blanchard situational leadership questionaire Bell,J/2013/French & Ravens five bases of power