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Journal Impact Measures
The Impact Factor
Leuven 2019
Presented at the european
summer school for
scientometrics
ESSS
July 16th, 2019
● Daniel Torres Salinas - Univ Granada / E...
1
Introduction
2300 papers about the
impact Factor!!
Journal Impact Measures
The Impact Factor
Our presentation
● Definition and calculation
● Problems and limitations
● The J...
Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation
In 1972 Garfield
released his first
journal impact factors.
The result w...
Uses of the Impact Factor
Perhaps the most important application of citation analysis is in
studies of science policy and ...
2
Definition and calculation
A functional
approximation of the mean
citation rate per citable
item
A Journal Impact Factor of 1.0
means that, on averag...
... 2012 2013 2014 2015 ...
NR
PAPERS
25
NR
PAPERS
20
25 + 20
Citations
from
500
Citations
500IF
2015
500
45
IF
11,11
2018
IMPACT FACTOR 2.770
Number of items
2016 + 2017
Citations in 2018 to
items published in
2016 + 2017
=
1997
721
= 2.770
Numerator and denominator
Items
citationsIF
2015
500
45
IF
11,11
DENOMINATOR: Journals published different document
types ...
Numerator and denominator
Items
citationsIF
2015
500
45
IF
11,11
IF counts citations from different databases and document...
Citation window
Two years citation windows
Three years citation windows
Time after publication
Using a bigger citation win...
The JCR: 5 years impact factor
Five years
citation
windows
The 2-year and the
5-year impact factor
lead statistically to t...
3
Problems & limitations
The main problem with the IF is its use
for the evaluation at individual level
“... In more than 80% of
research-heavy
uni...
“In Spain publication in journals with a high impact factor has
is an official part of the national system for evaluating
...
San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment
An average like the IF is not representative
Citation distributions within journals are skewed
Most of the papers are not ...
Citation distributions within journals are skewed
The properties of the IF are field-specific
Median IF 2018 = 0.5
Maximum 2018 = 1.94
Median IF 2018 = 1,21
Maximum 2018 = ...
The properties of the IF are field-specific
Example from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/asi.20936
4
The Journal Citation Reports
Journal and disciplines coverage: JCR 2018 ed.
Nr of Journals
● 12.538 Journals
● Science ed. 9139
● Social Science ed. 33...
Countries and Languages coverage: JCR 2018 ed.
7066 - 56%
Other indicators included in the JCR
What can be known about a Journal in the JCR
Information included in
the JCR for journals
Key Indicators
Source data
Rank
...
Fake metrics
More than
50 fake
journal
metrics
Global Impact Factor: http://globalimpactfactor.com
Journal Impact Factor (JIF):
http://www.jifactor.com
Cite Factor: https://www.citefactor.org
Universal Impact Factor: http://uifactor.org
Bonus1
Practical applications
Sometimes we need to calculate impact factor for a set of documents,
for examples the output a institution or author. In t...
How can I integrate the JCR in my local database?
STEP 1
Download records
from your institution
and import to DB
STEP 2
Do...
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Journal impact measures: the Impact Factor

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The seminar on impact measures will first shed light on the best known and most controversial indicator, namely Garfield’s Journal Impact Factor. Its strengths and weaknesses as well as its correct use will be discussed thoroughly. Moreover the corresponding analytical tool, Clarivate Analytics’s Journal Citation Reports will be demonstrated.

Presented at the european summer school for scientometrics ESSS - July 16th, 2019 - Louvain

Publicado en: Educación
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Journal impact measures: the Impact Factor

  1. 1. Journal Impact Measures The Impact Factor Leuven 2019
  2. 2. Presented at the european summer school for scientometrics ESSS July 16th, 2019 ● Daniel Torres Salinas - Univ Granada / EC3metrics ● Nicolás Robinson García - TU Delft
  3. 3. 1 Introduction
  4. 4. 2300 papers about the impact Factor!!
  5. 5. Journal Impact Measures The Impact Factor Our presentation ● Definition and calculation ● Problems and limitations ● The Journal Citation Reports
  6. 6. Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation In 1972 Garfield released his first journal impact factors. The result was a list of journals ranked by the average number of citations per research article using the information from the SCI. 2200 Journals Science (178):471-479, 1972 The first ranking of journals using the impact Factor
  7. 7. Uses of the Impact Factor Perhaps the most important application of citation analysis is in studies of science policy and research evaluation would appear to be of great potential value in the management of library journal collections Individual scientists face the problem of selecting journals to read and keep, as well as compiling reference for their students Editors and editorial boards of scientific journals may also find citation analysis helpful for editorial policies In his seminal paper Garfield addressed four possible users and uses
  8. 8. 2 Definition and calculation
  9. 9. A functional approximation of the mean citation rate per citable item A Journal Impact Factor of 1.0 means that, on average, the articles published two years ago have been cited one time. JCR Definition: all citations to the journal to items published in the previous two years divided by the total number of scholarly items published in the journal in the previous two year 1972 definition: “dividing the number of times a journal has been cited by the number of articles it has published during some specific period of time. The journal impact factor reflect an average citation rate per article” Definitions
  10. 10. ... 2012 2013 2014 2015 ... NR PAPERS 25 NR PAPERS 20 25 + 20 Citations from 500 Citations 500IF 2015 500 45 IF 11,11
  11. 11. 2018 IMPACT FACTOR 2.770 Number of items 2016 + 2017 Citations in 2018 to items published in 2016 + 2017 = 1997 721 = 2.770
  12. 12. Numerator and denominator Items citationsIF 2015 500 45 IF 11,11 DENOMINATOR: Journals published different document types but for calculate the IF we just take into account: Articles / Reviews / Proceedings NUMERATOR: The JCR considers the citations received for all document types: (Articles + Reviews) + letters, editorials, meeting abstracts, ...
  13. 13. Numerator and denominator Items citationsIF 2015 500 45 IF 11,11 IF counts citations from different databases and document types: Journals: Citation Indexes Book: Book Citation Index Proceedings: Conference Proceedings Citation Index Journals: Emerging Sources Citation Index
  14. 14. Citation window Two years citation windows Three years citation windows Time after publication Using a bigger citation window is possible to retrieval more citations. This could positive for humanities or social sciences where papers need more time to be cited
  15. 15. The JCR: 5 years impact factor Five years citation windows The 2-year and the 5-year impact factor lead statistically to the same ranking (Leydesdorff, 2009) Time after publication
  16. 16. 3 Problems & limitations
  17. 17. The main problem with the IF is its use for the evaluation at individual level “... In more than 80% of research-heavy universities.. use of the impact factor in academic evaluations...” “... many academics and review panels have turned to impact factors as a quick way of judging the quality of a paper….” https://www.natureindex.com/news-blog/impact-factors-widely-used-academic-evaluations
  18. 18. “In Spain publication in journals with a high impact factor has is an official part of the national system for evaluating researchers’ productivity. A money bonus is awarded only for articles published in top JCR Journals” https://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/11/01/impact-impact-factor-spain (Ruiz and Delgado) “...Research groups have altered their research agendas. In Spain, research with practical applications, and research on topics that are local… has been replaced by basic research in topics more likely to be better received by the international research community”
  19. 19. San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment
  20. 20. An average like the IF is not representative Citation distributions within journals are skewed Most of the papers are not cited or receive 1 citation Few papers receive a large number of citations
  21. 21. Citation distributions within journals are skewed
  22. 22. The properties of the IF are field-specific Median IF 2018 = 0.5 Maximum 2018 = 1.94 Median IF 2018 = 1,21 Maximum 2018 = 11,775 Median IF 2018 = 3,485 Maximum 2018 = 43,351
  23. 23. The properties of the IF are field-specific Example from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/asi.20936
  24. 24. 4 The Journal Citation Reports
  25. 25. Journal and disciplines coverage: JCR 2018 ed. Nr of Journals ● 12.538 Journals ● Science ed. 9139 ● Social Science ed. 3338 Nr of disciplines ● 236 Disciplines ● Science ed. 178 ● Social Science ed. 58
  26. 26. Countries and Languages coverage: JCR 2018 ed. 7066 - 56%
  27. 27. Other indicators included in the JCR
  28. 28. What can be known about a Journal in the JCR Information included in the JCR for journals Key Indicators Source data Rank Cited Journal Data Citing Journal Data Box Plot Journal Relationships VIDEO - CLICK ON
  29. 29. Fake metrics More than 50 fake journal metrics
  30. 30. Global Impact Factor: http://globalimpactfactor.com
  31. 31. Journal Impact Factor (JIF): http://www.jifactor.com
  32. 32. Cite Factor: https://www.citefactor.org
  33. 33. Universal Impact Factor: http://uifactor.org
  34. 34. Bonus1 Practical applications
  35. 35. Sometimes we need to calculate impact factor for a set of documents, for examples the output a institution or author. In this tutorial: ● How can we download data from JCR? ● How can we import this JCR data in a local database? ● How can we connect data from web of science with data from JCR? ● How can we can calculate impact factors for a set of WoS records? Example: Calculating impact factor and quartile for the scientific output of the university of Granada in Artificial Intelligence
  36. 36. How can I integrate the JCR in my local database? STEP 1 Download records from your institution and import to DB STEP 2 Download journal data from JCR and import DB STEP 3 Create a query to join records with indicators Video Click on Video Click on Video Click on

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