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Salads and sandwiches

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Salads and sandwiches

  1. 1. Salads and Sandwiches 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production1
  2. 2. Student Objectives  • Identify basic techniques for pre-preparation of selected vegetables for cold service  • Identify categories and types of salads  • Discuss factors contributing to texture, color and flavor of salads  • Identify general rules for salad preparation  • Identify common salad ingredients  • Identify categories, types and applications of salad dressings and cold sauces  • Identify categories of cold sandwiches and sandwich-making techniques  • Identify categories of hot sandwiches and sandwich-making techniques  • Discuss the pantry and its role in supporting all areas of menu production  • Demonstrate the ability to execute selected basic recipes for pre- preparing, assembly and serving of salads, sandwiches and cold vegetable dishes  • Demonstrate the ability to produce selected carved vegetable and fruit garnishes 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production2
  3. 3. I. Salads A. Types of salads 1. Appetizer 2. Accompaniment 3. Main course 4. Dessert 5. Hors d’oeuvre 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production3
  4. 4. I. Salads B. Categories of salads 1. Arranged or random (tossed greens) 2. Composed (chef salad, Cobb salads) 3. Compound (potato salad, tuna salad) 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production4
  5. 5. I. Salads C. Structure of the arranged salad 1. Under-liner 2. Body 3. Garnish 4. Dressing 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production5
  6. 6. I. Salads D. Guideline for arranging salads 1. Center ingredients 2. Keep salad within rim of plate 3. Build height for eye appeal 4. Color a. Balance b. Placement c. Complement and contrast 5. Contrasting textures 6. Uniformity of cuts 7. Simplicity 8. Notes on application of dressings 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production6
  7. 7. I. Salads E. Common vegetable salad ingredients 1. Salad greens a. Iceberg b. Romaine c. Boston/ Bibb d. Leaf lettuces e. Mesclun or “field greens” f. Spinach g. Endive h. Cress 2. Raw vegetables (Avocado, Celery, Carrots, Tomatoes..) 3. Blanched vegetables 4. Marinated and pickled vegetables 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production7
  8. 8. Romaine Spinach Endive Cress 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production8
  9. 9. I. Salads F. Fruit salads 1. Pre-preparing fruits 2. Peeling and cutting techniques a. Citrus b. Melons and pineapples c. Apples and pears d. Berries e. Other 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production9
  10. 10. I. Salads G. Molded and gelatin salads H. Cold savory mousses 1. Base 2. Binder 3. Aeration 4. Gelatin 5. Whisking 6. Molding 7. Aspic a. Velvety texture b. Light consistency c. Delicate and distinctive flavor d. Smooth, shiny appearance (aspics) e. Mousseline (individual portion mousses) 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production10
  11. 11. I. Salads I. Composed (cooked) meat/protein-based salads 1. Tuna 2. Ham 3. Egg 4. Pasta 5. Other 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production11
  12. 12. I. Salads J. Salad dressings and cold sauces 1. Salad dressing basics a. Choosing oils 1) Olive oils, virtues of extra-virgin 2) Nut oils, including peanut, hazelnut and sesame 3) Infused oils 4) Procedures for creating infused oils b. Choosing an acid 1) Vinegars a) White b) Wine c) Apple d) Rice e) Balsamic 2) Infused vinegar12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production12
  13. 13. Salad dressings and cold sauces Continued 3) Process for infusing vinegar • Citrus juice • Wine • Combinations 2. Egg yolks and emulsification a. Permanent emulsion (mayonnaise as example) b. Temporary emulsion (creamy vinaigrette as example) c. Use of pasteurized egg yolks as an emulsification agent d. Emulsification without egg yolks 3. Seasonings, flavorings and sweeteners 4. Cooked and warm dressings 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production13
  14. 14. II. Cold and hot sandwiches A. Categories of cold sandwiches 1. Simple 2. Multi-deck 3. Open face 4. Cocktail or “tea” sandwiches B. Setting up a sandwich station 1. Tools and equipment 2. Mise en place 3. “Assembly line” production for quantity order 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production14
  15. 15. Sandwiches A sandwich is an item of food consisting of two pieces of bread with meat, cheese or other fillings between them. It is eaten as a light meal. Many different types and styles of sandwiches have been developed over the years. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production15
  16. 16. A sandwich consists of bread, a spread, and fillings. It takes skill to make sandwiches that are both delicious and nutritious. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production16
  17. 17. Composition Base Bread or dough product Carrier of the other ingredients Should be sturdy enough to hold ingredients without becoming limp or broken12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production17
  18. 18. parts of sandwich 1. Bread 2. Spread (optional) 3. Filling 1.The Bread: The bread must be fresh. Pan bread or ready-sliced bread is quick and neater than loaf bread. Use brown, white or whole meal breads. Pittas, baquettes, ciabattas are other popular bread types used to make sandwiches. Experiment with different types, flavors and textures of bread. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production18
  19. 19. Bread  The casing, normally bread of some type is the foundation of the sandwich. If it is not chosen and handled properly the quality of the sandwich can not be good. Well chosen and handled correctly, it makes the perfect match with a filling. The overall purpose of the bread is to act as edible casing for the filling of the closed sandwich and a platform for the filling of the open sandwich. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production19
  20. 20. continue  The finished sandwich depends as heavily on the bread as the filling for the quality. The bread must be a good match for the filling. Bread provides for sandwich.  TEXTURE  VARIETY  FLAVOR.  EYE APPEAL.  CARBOHYDRATES,VITAMINSAND12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production20
  21. 21. Selection factors  Always select fresh bread that has a close smooth crumb and good flavor and moistness. The bread should be capable of being picked up without bending or loosing filling. The bread should have firm texture. Bread should be at least 12 hours old 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production21
  22. 22. Forms of bread  Pullman-sandwich loaf, rectangular loaf it is normally available in white and whole wheat.  Rolls-used for sandwich includes hamburger, hot dog ,croissant and French. These rolls are available in white, whole wheat and other types.  Pita or pocket bread 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production22
  23. 23. Storage and handling  Purchase only the amount of bread that can be used in one day.  Store soft –crushed bread in its original wrapper or tightly wrapped.  Hard-crushed bread may be stored without wrap.  Bread is best stored at room temperature away from heat. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production23
  24. 24. History  The concept of wrapping bread around a filling for portability is ancient. One of the earliest recorded references to the sandwich tells of the famed Jewish teacher Rabbi Hilled(70 B.C. to70 A.D.), a prince, who established the practice of eating sandwiches at Passover that were made of two pieces of unleavened bread encasing bitter herbs and chopped nuts and apples. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production24
  25. 25. HISTORY  Field workers in France have long had the custom of eating meat enclosed in two slices of bread. In southern France, it is customary to provide those setting out on a long journey with slices of cooked meat, sandwiched between two slices of bread. The Pain– Bagnat of Nice is a definite example of a sandwich that has been around for centuries. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production25
  26. 26. History The term SANDWICH came into being about 200 years ago. There lived a notorious gambler in the court of George III His name was John Montague, the Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792). The Earls gambling affliction was such, that he would enter into 24 hours marathons at the gaming tables. Any eating that 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production26
  27. 27. 2. Spread: The spread acts as a waterproof layer and prevents most fillings from making the bread soggy. Soft spreads are easy to spread at fridge temperature. Butter, in order to be soft and spreadable, must be at room temperature.Toenhance the flavor of a sandwich, season the spread with mustard powder or lemon zest.12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production27
  28. 28. spread  The spread is the simplest of the three main sandwich ingredients. Sandwich spread serves three primary purposes  It acts as a sealant for the bread.  It adds flavor to the sandwich.  It adds moisture, improving the sandwich: mouth feel.  It must be of high quality, properly prepared and used. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production28
  29. 29.  It should be soft enough to spread thinly and evenly.  It should be cover all four corner of the bread.  The spread should be rich, moist and of suitable flavor for the filling,  Flavored butter, margarine or cream cheese spread should be soft. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production29
  30. 30. Types  Spreads used for sandwich vary from the simple to complex however, the simple are most often used .  Mayonnaise is the most commonly used is often preferred to butter but does not protect the bread from moisture as well as butter.  Mayonnaise used as a spread should be thick 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production30
  31. 31. continue  Butter or margarine is the most commonly used spread.  Butter is softened and whipped with a spoon until creamy.  This allows for better spread ability and grater volume.  It should be noted that flavored mayonnaise and butter explored to the fullest. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production31
  32. 32.  Both are excellent mediums for the addition to a sandwich of the other suitable flavors such as tarragon ,basil ,thyme.  It is also good way to introduce limited taste of an item such as sardines, shrimp.  Cheese spreads-cream cheese or processed cheese spreads bring an increased richness of flavor and texture to a sandwich. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production32
  33. 33. continue 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production33
  34. 34.  3. Filling: It is good to have soft and crispy textures in a sandwich. Fillings should be tasty and well-seasoned. A well-filled sandwich is a very appealing snack/meal. An overfilled sandwich can be very off-putting. Dry fillings such as meat should be moistened with a little mayonnaise or chutney.  12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production34
  35. 35.  The filling is the heart of most cases, it is what gives the sandwich its name.  The filling also provides the primary source of protein in most sandwich. The purpose of filling is to provide  The predominant flavor  Moisture  Substance  Combination of flavor12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production35
  36. 36. continue  As general rule, most meats used as filling, are precooked.  A sandwich filling can be a salad or chopped meat ,egg, or seafood mixture.  Basic guideline for sandwich filling  Half to half of the sandwich s weight should be filling.  Fillings must be pleasantly flavored .  Filling must betender in texture12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production36
  37. 37. continue  Fillings must be easy to eat.  Fillings should be rich enough in taste for the sandwich to act as a main course substitute  Fillings must not hang over the edge of the sandwich.  Salad fillings must not be so moist that they are messy or so dry that they fallout of the casing. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production37
  38. 38. Production of quantity sandwich  To prepare sandwich's in quantity requires good preparation and planning .The steps are as follows  Prepare and assemble all the necessary ingredients.  Gather all the necessary equipment.  Arrange the bread slices in rows on a long table. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production38
  39. 39. continue  Spread each slice of bread with the chosen spread.  Place the fillings evenly and neatly on attractive slice on the bread.  Top the filled side of the bread with the alternative side.  Stack two or three sandwich and cut them with a sharp knife.  To hold for future service inrefregerator12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production39
  40. 40. Types of sandwich  There are two main divisions  Hot  Cold  Hot and closed sandwich again classified as open and closed  Hot sandwiches- hot sandwich must be hot.  They must remain hot through service.  Hot sandwich can have a hotsauce as an accompaniment12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production40
  41. 41. Hot sandwich  Hot sandwich classified as  Closed  Open  Closed-a closed hot sandwich is defined as one which hasa hot filling served in one which has a hot filling served in bread toast ,toast rolls or roll 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production41
  42. 42. continue  The closed hot sandwich can be sub-divided into 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production42
  43. 43. Filling category Ideas Meat Meat in sandwiches should be very thinly sliced. Meats taste well when combined with other foods.  Thinly sliced roast lamb and mint jelly  Thinly sliced roast beef, lettuce and onion rings.  Chicken and turkey with chopped apple, celery and mayonnaise  Ham, pickles and lettuce  Salami and lettuce Fish  Tinned salmon with cucumber and mayonnaise  Sardines with lemon juice and mayonnaise  Tuna with chopped apple lemon juice and mayonnaise Salad  Combine lettuce, tomatoes, onion and mayonnaise Cheese  Creamed cheese with smoked salmon and capers  Cheddar cheese with chutney and pickles Egg  Hardboiled egg with chive and mayonnaise 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production43
  44. 44. II. Cold and hot sandwiches C. Cold and hot sandwich construction 1. Layering of ingredients affects flavor 2. Thickness of the cut affects flavor 3. Breads 4. Dressings and sauces 5. Cheeses 6. Meats 7. Compound salads and spreads 8. Vegetables 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production44
  45. 45. II. Cold and hot sandwiches D. Categories of hot sandwiches - 1. Simple sandwiches (examples: hamburgers, hot dogs, submarine) 2. Open faced sandwiches (examples: knife & fork sandwiches such as hot roast beef with gravy) 3. Grilled sandwiches (examples: Reuben sandwich, grilled cheese) 4. Deep-fried sandwiches (example: Monte Cristo sandwich) 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production45
  46. 46. Hamburger Open faced sandwich Grilled cheese Monte Cristo sandwich 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production46
  47. 47. II. Cold and hot sandwiches E. Plate presentation and garnishment 1. Balance a. Colors (varied, complementary, contrasting) b. Shapes, textures, height c. Flavors (complementary and contrasting tastes, edible garnish that enhances appearance and compliments the food) 2. Attractive arrangement on the plate a. Keep food off the rim unless plating guidelines call for rim decoration (think of the rim as the frame of your “picture”). 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production47
  48. 48. Plate presentation and garnishment Continued b. Arrange items for the ease of the guest (place the best side of the meat forward.) c. Arrange items in a structured, orderly and attractive manner. Keep in mind, even with “architectural” presentations, items should retain their individual identity and the plate should never feel overcrowded. The plate arrangement should have a central focal point and maintain a sense of unity. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production48
  49. 49. Plate presentation and garnishment Continued d. Use garnish only when it makes sense; many dishes have enough color, contrast and balance to be self-garnished. e. Use sauces and dressings with discretion; lining the bottom of the plate with a sauce or serving the dressing on the side will preserve the integrity of your presentation. Never drown a plate in sauce or dressing. f. Keep presentations simple and focused on the freshness of your ingredients. Overly-elaborate presentations often distract diners from what they ordered. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production49
  50. 50. 12/05/16 bichha rk bhm food production50