A	metamodel proposal	for	developing	learning	
ecosystems
Alicia	García-Holgado,	Francisco	J.	García-Peñalvo
GRIAL	Research...
Index
1. Which	is	a	technological	ecosystem?
2. Problems
3. Objectives
4. High-level	requirements
5. Ecosystem	metamodel
6...
1.	Which	is	a	technological	ecosystem?	(I)
• The	technological	ecosystems	are	the	evolution	of	the	
traditional	informatio...
1.	Which	is	a	technological	ecosystem?	(II)
• The	organisms	of	the	
natural	ecosystems	are	the	
users	and	the	software	
co...
1.	Which	is	a	technological	ecosystem?	(III)
• Technological	ecosystems	
should	connect	and	relate	
the	different	tools	an...
2.	Problems
• One	of	the	main	problems	to	define	and	develop	
technological	ecosystems	is	the	need	to	adapt	them	to	
diffe...
3.	Objectives
• To	improve	the	definition	and	development	of	learning	ecosystems	
providing	a	platform-independent	solutio...
4.	High-level requirements
• The	metamodel shall	enable	capture	of	the	high-level	
description	of	the	learning	ecosystem	c...
5.	Ecosystem metamodel (I)
• Learning	ecosystems	modeling	
involves	the	architectural	pattern	
proposed	in	(García-Holgado...
5.	Ecosystem	metamodel (II)
• The	metamodel is	a	
M2-level	model	in	the	
four-layer	metamodel
architecture.	The	
Ecosystem...
5.	Ecosystem	metamodel (III)
Software components
Human factor
Relationship between components
5.	Ecosystem	metamodel (IV)
• The	metamodel is	completed	with	a	set	of	constraints	de-fined	
with	Object	Constraint	Langua...
6.	A	case	study:	modeling	a	learning	ecosystem	for	
Scientific	Knowledge	Management	in	a	PhD	
Program	(I)
6.	A	case	study:	modeling	a	learning	ecosystem	for	
Scientific	Knowledge	Management	in	a	PhD	
Program	(II)
6.	A	case	study:	modeling a	learning	ecosystem	for	
Scientific	Knowledge	Management	in	a	PhD	
Program	(III)
7.	Conclusions
• This	paper	presents	an	ecosystems	metamodel based	on	MOF	to	
model	different	perspectives	of	learning	eco...
8.	References	(I)
• Casany,	M.	J.,	Alier,	M.,	Conde,	M.	Á.,	&	García-Peñalvo,	F.	J.	(2009).	SOA	initiatives for eLearning....
8.	References	(II)
• García-Holgado,	A.,	&	García-Peñalvo,	F.	J.	(2016).	Architectural pattern to	improve the definition a...
A	metamodel proposal	for	developing	learning	
ecosystems
Alicia	García-Holgado,	Francisco	J.	García-Peñalvo
GRIAL	Research...
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Presentation of the paper “A metamodel proposal for developing learning ecosystems” in HCII 2017

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This is the presentation of the paper entitled “A metamodel proposal for developing learning ecosystems” in the Emerging interactive systems for education session at the HCI International 2017 Conference, held in Vancouver, Canada, 9 - 14 July 2017.

The definition and development of learning ecosystems is a complex process with a wide range of requirements. Although two different institutions or companies share the same problems and goals regarding their learning and training processes, the learning ecosystems to support them are different. The components of the ecosystem, including the human factor as a key element, and the relationships between them, change over time. In other words, learning ecosystems evolve as natural ecosystems; there are many factors, both internal and external, that influence an entity. The authors have defined and developed different learning ecosystems. Moreover, they have transferred the same learning ecosystem, specifically a learning eco-system for knowledge management in a PhD Program, to different domains. These experiences have provided the required information to define the ecosystems metamodel following the Model Driven Architecture proposed by the Object Management Group. The aim of this metamodel is define a Domain Specification Language to develop learning ecosystems.

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Presentation of the paper “A metamodel proposal for developing learning ecosystems” in HCII 2017

  1. 1. A metamodel proposal for developing learning ecosystems Alicia García-Holgado, Francisco J. García-Peñalvo GRIAL Research Group, Computer Sciences Department, Research Institute for Educational Sciences, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain aliciagh@usal.es, fgarcia@usal.es
  2. 2. Index 1. Which is a technological ecosystem? 2. Problems 3. Objectives 4. High-level requirements 5. Ecosystem metamodel 6. A case study: modeling a learning ecosystem for Scientific Knowledge Management in a PhD Program 7. Conclusions 8. References
  3. 3. 1. Which is a technological ecosystem? (I) • The technological ecosystems are the evolution of the traditional information systems • The learning ecosystems are a type of technological ecosystems focus on learning management processes • The metaphor of technological ecosystem transfers the main properties of biological or natural ecosystems to the technological area
  4. 4. 1. Which is a technological ecosystem? (II) • The organisms of the natural ecosystems are the users and the software components from a technological point of view; the relationships among the organisms are the information flows between the components; and the physical environment are the mechanism to stablish and support such flows (García-Holgado & García-Peñalvo, 2013)
  5. 5. 1. Which is a technological ecosystem? (III) • Technological ecosystems should connect and relate the different tools and services that arise and serve for the knowledge management, building technological ecosystems, increasingly complex internally, from the semantic interoperability of its components to transparently provide more functionality and simplicity to its users
  6. 6. 2. Problems • One of the main problems to define and develop technological ecosystems is the need to adapt them to different contexts or domains • The development of a learning ecosystem is influenced by many factors, both internal and external
  7. 7. 3. Objectives • To improve the definition and development of learning ecosystems providing a platform-independent solution • The main objective of this work is to define a metamodel for developing learning ecosystems following the Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG) • MDA provides a framework for software development that uses models to describe the system to be built (Mellor et al., 2002) • It is based on previous experiences in the development of service- oriented architectures in eLearning (Casany et al., 2009; Conde et al., 2009a; 2009b;García-Peñalvo et al., 2011) and technological ecosystems for learning (Cruz-Benito et al., 2014;García-Peñalvo et al., 2014; García-Holgado & García-Peñalvo, 2014; 2016; García-Holgado et al.,2015a; 2015b)
  8. 8. 4. High-level requirements • The metamodel shall enable capture of the high-level description of the learning ecosystem components • The metamodel shall enable capture of the human factor as part of the learning ecosystem • The metamodel shall enable capture of the information flows between the learning ecosystem components • The metamodel shall enable capture of the configurations of the software components
  9. 9. 5. Ecosystem metamodel (I) • Learning ecosystems modeling involves the architectural pattern proposed in (García-Holgado & García-Peñalvo, 2016) with a top- down scheme composed of four layers: presentation, services, static data management and infrastructure; in addition to two input data flows to introduce the human factor as a key element • Also, the pattern provides a set of software components that should be part of a learning ecosystem to resolve some problems of this kind of technological solutions
  10. 10. 5. Ecosystem metamodel (II) • The metamodel is a M2-level model in the four-layer metamodel architecture. The Ecosystems Metamodel is an instance of the MOF meta-metamodel (M3-level model)
  11. 11. 5. Ecosystem metamodel (III) Software components Human factor Relationship between components
  12. 12. 5. Ecosystem metamodel (IV) • The metamodel is completed with a set of constraints de-fined with Object Constraint Language (OCL) • An ecosystem must have one mail server, one monitoring system, one user management system, and at least one internal tool, one management input stream, one methodology input stream and one user • The value of the endpoint attribute defined in the service descriptions should be unique in the whole ecosystem • A software tool cannot consume a service provided by itself, that is to say, the information flows always involve two different software tools HCI 2017
  13. 13. 6. A case study: modeling a learning ecosystem for Scientific Knowledge Management in a PhD Program (I)
  14. 14. 6. A case study: modeling a learning ecosystem for Scientific Knowledge Management in a PhD Program (II)
  15. 15. 6. A case study: modeling a learning ecosystem for Scientific Knowledge Management in a PhD Program (III)
  16. 16. 7. Conclusions • This paper presents an ecosystems metamodel based on MOF to model different perspectives of learning ecosystems development • The metamodel have been used to model a real learning ecosystem for a PhD Program, which have been transferred to other domains • The modeling example demonstrate how a real ecosystem could be modeled using the Ecosystems Metamodel • This work provides a base to define a UML profile for the Ecosystems Metamodel in order to leverage existing tool support • A set of transformation rules using QVT could be defined to transform the models into executable specifications to provide an ecosystem prototype
  17. 17. 8. References (I) • Casany, M. J., Alier, M., Conde, M. Á., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2009). SOA initiatives for eLearning. A Moodle case 23rd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA 2009, Workshops Proceedings. The International Symposium on Mining and Web (MAW 2009) (pp. 750-755). Los Alamitos, California, USA: IEEE Computer Society. • Conde, M. Á., García-Peñalvo, F. J., Casany, M. J., & Alier, M. (2009b). Adapting LMS architecture to the SOA: an Architectural Approach. In H. Sasaki, G. O. Bellot, M. Ehmann, & O. Dini (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services – ICIW 2009 (Venice/Mestre, Italy, 24-28 May 2009) (pp. 322-327). Los Alamitos, California, USA: IEEE Computer Society. • Conde, M. Á., Muñoz, C., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2008). mLearning, the First Step in the Learning Process Revolution. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 2(4), 61-63. • García-Holgado, A., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2013). The evolution of the technological ecosystems: an architectural proposal to enhancing learning processes Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technological Ecosystem for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM'13) (Salamanca, Spain, November 14-15, 2013) (pp. 565-571). New York, NY, USA: ACM. • Cruz-Benito, J., Therón, R., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2014). Analytics of information flows and decision making in heterogeneous learning ecosystems. In F. J. García-Peñalvo (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM’14) (pp. 703-707). New York, USA: ACM. • García-Holgado, A., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2014a). Architectural pattern for the definition of eLearning ecosystems based on Open Source developments. In J. L. Sierra-Rodríguez, J. M. Dodero-Beardo, & D. Burgos (Eds.), Proceedings of 2014 International Symposium on Computers in Education (SIIE), Logrono, La Rioja, Spain, 12-14 Nov. 2014 (pp. 93-98). USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
  18. 18. 8. References (II) • García-Holgado, A., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2016). Architectural pattern to improve the definition and implementation of eLearning ecosystems. Science of Computer Programming, 129, 20-34. doi:10.1016/j.scico.2016.03.010 • García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F. J., Hernández-García, Á., & Llorens-Largo, F. (2015a). Analysis and Improvement of Knowledge Management Processes in Organizations Using the Business Process Model Notation. In D. Palacios-Marqués, D. Ribeiro Soriano, & K. H. Huarng (Eds.), New Information and Communication Technologies for Knowledge Management in Organizations. 5th Global Innovation and Knowledge Academy Conference, GIKA 2015, Valencia, Spain, July 14-16, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 93-101). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. • García-Holgado, A., García-Peñalvo, F. J., & Rodríguez-Conde, M. J. (2015b). Definition of a Technological Ecosystem for Scientific Knowledge Management in a PhD Programme. In G. R. Alves & M. C. Felgueiras (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM’15) (Porto, Portugal, October 7-9, 2015) (pp. 695-700). New York, NY, USA: ACM. • García-Peñalvo, F. J., Conde, M. A., Alier, M., & Casany, M. J. (2011). Opening Learning Management Systems to Personal Learning Environments. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 17(9), 1222-1240. doi:10.3217/jucs-017-09-1222. • Mellor, S. J., Scott, K., Uhl, A., & Weise, D. (2002). Model-Driven Architecture. In J.-M. Bruel & Z. Bellahsene (Eds.), Advances in Object-Oriented Information Systems: OOIS 2002 Workshops Montpellier, France, September 2, 2002 Proceedings (pp. 290-297). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  19. 19. A metamodel proposal for developing learning ecosystems Alicia García-Holgado, Francisco J. García-Peñalvo GRIAL Research Group, Computer Sciences Department, Research Institute for Educational Sciences, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain aliciagh@usal.es, fgarcia@usal.es

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