Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Se está descargando tu SlideShare. ×

Integrating HCI in a Web accessibility engineering approach

Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Cargando en…3
×

Eche un vistazo a continuación

1 de 13 Anuncio

Integrating HCI in a Web accessibility engineering approach

Authors: Lourdes Moreno, Paloma Martínez, Belén Ruiz-Mezcua
HCII 2009: 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. 5th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (HCII 2009), (July 2009, San Diego, CA, USA).
Integrating HCI in a Web accessibility engineering approach

Authors: Lourdes Moreno, Paloma Martínez, Belén Ruiz-Mezcua
HCII 2009: 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. 5th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (HCII 2009), (July 2009, San Diego, CA, USA).
Integrating HCI in a Web accessibility engineering approach

Anuncio
Anuncio

Más Contenido Relacionado

Similares a Integrating HCI in a Web accessibility engineering approach (20)

Anuncio

Más de Grupo HULAT (20)

Más reciente (20)

Anuncio

Integrating HCI in a Web accessibility engineering approach

  1. 1. Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach Lourdes Moreno, Paloma Martínez, Belén Ruiz-Mezcua Labda Group, Computer science department Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain {lmoreno, pmf, bruiz}@inf.uc3m.es
  2. 2. Lourdes Moreno, “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”, Universidad Carlos III de Introduction • The web offers many services, but these are not accessible to all • The accessibility barriers affect a wide range of users and usage contexts • Legislation about web accessibility in some countries • Standardization: Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) • The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) – The treatment of Web accessibility is not only following the WCAG to strictly comply with technical aspects ⇒To take into account the user experience ⇒ With Inclusion
  3. 3. Lourdes Moreno, “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”, Universidad Carlos III de Motivation Web application development process • Accessible development implies some difficulties • Which method to follow to include accessibility criteria in the process?: Software engineering (SE). Web engineering (WE)  Methodologies: traditional, agile , … Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). User Centred Design (UCD) methodologies  Relationship between usability and accessibility
  4. 4. Lourdes Moreno, “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”, Universidad Carlos III de Motivation Conflicts between disciplines? • SE, WE: Very focused on the architecture • HCI: Very focused on the user ⇒To integrate usability and accessibility in software engineering processes incorporating a User-Centered Design (UCD) and Inclusive Design  With the integration of usability techniques in the web application development Life Cycle
  5. 5. Lourdes Moreno, “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”, Universidad Carlos III de AWA (Accessibility for Web Applications) • To provide a methodological support for the development of accessible web applications • Based on two disciplines: – Web engineering which provides specific modelling techniques – UCD approach which provides usability techniques • To define specific accessibility requirements and mechanisms to be included in the developed process – Accessibility Mechanisms to extend to web engineering methods • To include accessibility requirements result from abstracting the WCAG, called AWA _WCAG – Accessibility Mechanisms to take into account the user as active participant in the development process, called AWA_Interaction
  6. 6. Lourdes Moreno, “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”, Universidad Carlos III de This work: AWA_Interaction • (a) How to follow a UCD methodology with inclusion and usability techniques such as Interviews, User Profile, Person, Scenarios, Card Sorting, Prototyping and Heuristic Evaluations • (b) How to integrate the results of these techniques on the different models, steps and artefacts in a design process
  7. 7. Requirement capture 43 BestSellers « contexto » E Libro ISBN titulo año páginas prestar() Autor nombre « view » ventas > 1,000,000 Navegación a un contexto (BestSellers) que dará información de best-sellers (más 1,000,000 ejemplares vendidos) « view » Conceptual model Navigation model Presentation model Analysis phase Design phase web Interface Implementation web code (2) To Include the knowledge obtained of AWA_Interaction in models and interface design (2) To Include the knowledge obtained of AWA_Interaction in models and interface design AWA_WCAG Abstract WCAG concepts AWA_WCAG Abstract WCAG concepts AWA_WCAG Valid and accessible code AWA_WCAG Valid and accessible code Evaluation (1) AWA_Interaction: Usability techniques with inclusion (1) AWA_Interaction: Usability techniques with inclusion (3) AWA_Interaction Evaluation techniques (3) AWA_Interaction Evaluation techniques
  8. 8. Lourdes Moreno, “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”, Universidad Carlos III de Usability techniques to be integrated into web modeling • Requirements capture – Ethnographic Studies and interviews • Analysis – User Profile, Persona and Scenarios – Card Sorting • Design – Low cost prototypes and Visual Brainstorming • Evaluation – User tests: Questionnaires, Interviews – Heuristic Evaluation
  9. 9. Lourdes Moreno, “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”, Universidad Carlos III de Case study: Spanish Centre of Captioning and Audio Description (CESyA) (www.cesya.es ) • Case study to show the accessibility mechanism of AWA_Interaction • Experiments to apply a UCD approach with inclusion incorporating usability techniques in the design process Spanish award for the more accessible public website in 2008
  10. 10. Lourdes Moreno, “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”, Universidad Carlos III de Case study Navigation Model  With the data resulting from Card Sorting => Structural markup of web contents according to the user mental model => The initial logical structure of the Navigational Model 1  With this structure and data resulting from Scenarios => Nodes and navigational links of Navigational Model 2  With data resulting from Card Sorting => The labeling of web contents and the purpose of each navigational link 3
  11. 11. Lourdes Moreno, “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”, Universidad Carlos III de Case study Presentation Model and Web Interface  All knowledge gained from user modeling (User Profile, Person and Scenarios) is taken into account:  Abstract presentation  Concrete presentation with CSS for the web interface  With the prototyping and Visual brainstorming techniques these design decisions are validated 4 5  The abstract Presentation can be inferred from the output from Prototyping and User Profile techniques, together with structural elements (Nodes of Navigational Model)
  12. 12. Lourdes Moreno, “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”, Universidad Carlos III de Conclusions  To follow accessibility standards does not guarantee complete accessible web applications  Difficulties in web application development due to not consider accessibility together with user interaction  To integrate of usability techniques by following a UCD and Inclusive Design in the development process  This approach allows us to be closer to the user in software design  The objective of these usability techniques is to facilitate the contents to be included in the web application when defining information architecture of the web and presentation into web interface
  13. 13. “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach” Lourdes Moreno lmoreno@inf.uc3m.es Thank you for your attention

Notas del editor

  • Good afternoon
    I'm Lourdes Moreno.
    I apologize because I'm not confident in English.
    (Maybe, I won’t be able to understand you, when you ask me questions. Please, Be Patient with me. Thank you.)
    I will present the work: “Integrating HCI in a Web Accessibility engineering approach”.
    It has been made in conjunction with Paloma Martinez and Belen Ruiz, from the University Carlos III of Madrid, Spain
    In am going to pass to presentation
  • The web offers many services, but these are not accessible to all. The users with the biggest problems are those with disabilities, but accessibility barriers affect a wide range of users and usage contexts.
    Web access should be available to any person, regardless of how one may access it.
    In some countries, there are legislation about web accessibility. One of the most important initiative in standardization is a “Web Accessibility Initiative “ (WAI) of the W 3 C .
    The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (W C A G) is one of the most important components of WAI, and is considered as a official standard.
    The treatment of Web accessibility is not only following the model according to the W C A G standard, which covers important and necessary technical aspects to avoid access barriers, but it is necessary to take into account the user experience and how does the user access the Web.
    The user with or without disabilities.
    From a research perspective, some areas of engineering to include usability and accessibility in web engineering methods as the approach of this work.
  • Nowadays, the accessible development implies some difficulties: lack of cost previsions and What method ought we to follow to include accessibility criteria in the process.
    When approaching a project to develop a web application, there are two disciplines to follow: the Software Engineering and Human Computer Interaction or H C I .
    On the one hand, within the software engineering methodologies, there are heavy methods with a large heavy methodological support of architecture, the methods more agile. For web applications are the web engineering methods, they are very focused on the modeling activity and with the Model Driven Development.
    On the other hand, the Human Computer Interaction which provides other techniques that focus on the user. To follow a User Centered Design, it based on iterative process.
    Here, the works about the relation between accessibility and usability are found.
  • The software and Web engineering approaches are very centred on the application architecture, but there is a distance from the user.
    Otherwise, the Human computer interaction discipline are user centred, but does not pay sufficient attention to architectural aspects of developing essentials to get a accessible web applications.
    What is the approach to follow?
    To integrate usability and accessibility in software engineering processes, incorporating a User-Centered Design and Inclusive Design.
    How?
    With the integration of usability techniques in the web application development Life Cycle.
  • With this motivation, AWA (Accessibility for Web Applications) was created, it is a research thesis.
    It providing a methodological framework for the accessible web applications development with a web engineering support.
    In AWA the accessibility is understood as the fulfillment of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) standard, including the user web experience.
    The objective of AWA is to define specific accessibility mechanisms to be included, in a methodology for web applications development, i.e. in analysis, design, implementation and maintenance phases.
    The mechanisms to include are of two types:
    Accessibility Mechanisms to extend to web engineering methods.
    To include accessibility requirements result from abstracting the WCAG, called AWA _WCAG.
    Accessibility Mechanisms to take into account the user as active participant in the development process, called AWA_Interaction.
    This work describes only the type AWA_interaction, the accessibility mechanisms related to usability.
  • The Web accessibility is more than the WCAG, and consequently other Accessibility Mechanisms as Human Computer Interaction (HCI) techniques should be included during the process.
    In this work, to follow a User-Centered Design (UCD) methodology with inclusion, using usability techniques such as Interviews, User Profile, Person, Scenarios, Card Sorting, Prototyping and Heuristic Evaluations.
    And,
    The results of these techniques are integrated on the different models in a process.
    This proposal has been validated in several case studies and one of them is introduced in this paper.
  • In this figure shows a iterative process with phases:
    Requirement in analysis phase.
    The design phase where we see the several models: structural, navigational and presentation models and the web interface .
    Through implementation have resulted the prototype or incremental delivery of web application.
    After, this prototype is evaluated to get a improvement increment to include in analysis phase in the next iteration .
    I can notice that there are mechanisms relative WCAG include in design phase and code generation.
    But the interaction mechanisms, focus of this work, are activate in analysis phase with the use of usability techniques, the knowledge obtained is included in models and there are mechanisms in evaluation phase too with the use of user tests and expert revision.
  • The group of usability techniques used that we offer you as a proposal are the following:
    Requirements capture:
    Inquiry methods such as Ethnographic Studies and interviews. With these to capture the accessibility and usability requirements. With the output of these techniques, we can begin to modeling the user interaction
    Analysis
    The user model is based on defining User Profile with the aim to satisfy the necessities of each group of users.
    In this point, we face the problem of extension and wide coverage of every user, it is convenient to make use of the focus of Person together with scenarios technique has been used. With Scenarios to obtain information on how the user interacts with the web.
    The Card Sorting technique is used in analysis and design. This technique facilitate to define information architecture of the web (or conceptual structural model)
    Design
    In design it is useful to use low cost prototypes and Visual Brainstorming. The objective of these techniques is to facilitate the contents to be included in the web application when defining information architecture of the web and presentation of web contents into web interface.
    Evaluation
    Finally, in evaluation phase the inquiry methods (Questionnaires, Interviews), Inspection Methods as Heuristic Evaluation and Walkthrough have been used.
    With this approach the designer becomes familiar with users and their characteristics, for instance, keeping in mind factors such as the use of magnifiers, screen readers, etc. The relationship between the accessibility barriers and the definition of information architecture is not explicitly indicated in guidelines of standard WCAG, while the Web Engineering Methods are usually centered in the architecture of the application. However, with the use of Card Sorting Technique and Interviews with users, some problems have been detected and corrected.
  • In order to show how usability techniques has been used, we describe the development of the web application of CESyA , a public reference institution dependent on the Royal Board on Disability.
    This case study is used to show and validate the accessibility mechanism of AWA interaction.
    The experiments have consisted of applying a UCD approach with inclusion incorporating usability techniques in the development process.
    Once the website was created, an extensive evaluation with experts and survey methods was made with users with or without disabilities with successful results and the website received the TAW award for the public more accessible website in 2008.
  • In this figure and the next slide, I will outline how to use usability techniques and how to integrate the results of these techniques on the navigational and presentation models.
    We can see the data resulting of card Sorting technique help to know how the user structures the web contents, in this way, the initial logical structure is obtained.
    The classified concepts is a category of card sorting, the category can be a node of navigational model.
    2) To based in this initial structure of web contents together with data resulting of scenarios with persons and prototype, we obtained the nodes and links of navigational model.
    3) Besides of data resulting from Card Sorting, it is obtained the revised labeling of the classified concepts and categories and the purpose of each navigational link.
  • In the case of presentation model: It has a “abstract presentation model” and “concrete presentation” (web interface styles) in design phase
    The presentation design is based on the construction of the interface which shows the navigational elements (nodes) to the user, and it is performed via abstract user interfaces.
    Presentation model does not usually deal with the concrete presentation or web interface. Web interface concerns interface style and it is implemented by other techniques such as CSS (Cascading Style Sheets).
    (4) All knowledge gained resulting from modeling user (User Profile, Person and Scenarios) will be taken into account when designing the "Presentation Model" to include abstracted characteristics into the model and precise styles through Cascading Style Sheets following standards (WCAG, CSS) for the web interface.
    This styles with the use of prototyping and Visual brainstorming techniques these design decisions must be validated.
    (5) The abstract Presentation Model can be inferred from the output from Prototyping and User Profile techniques, together with structural elements (Nodes of Navigational Model).
  • To conclude,
    To follow accessibility standards as WCAG does not guarantee complete accessible web applications.
    There are difficulties in web application development due to not consider accessibility together with user interaction.
    a solution can be to integrate of usability techniques by following a UCD and Inclusive Design in the development process.
    This approach allows us to be closer to the user in software design.
    The objective of these usability techniques is to facilitate the contents to be included in the web application when defining information architecture of the web and presentation into web interface
  • Thank you for your attention
    Maybe, I can't understand you, when you ask me. Please, Be Patient with me. Thank you.

×