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Privacy Considerations in Online and Mobile Photo Sharing

A CHI 2007 conference paper presentation

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Privacy Considerations in Online and Mobile Photo Sharing

  1. 1. Over Exposed? Privacy Patterns and Considerations in Online and Mobile Photo Sharing Shane Ahern, Dean Eckles, Nathan Good, Simon King, Mor Naaman*, Rahul Nair Yahoo! Research Berkeley
  2. 2. What do you get when you mix… Camera- phones Context People Instant Web Upload
  3. 3. This talk is not about photos <ul><li>Increasingly easy </li></ul><ul><li>to publish, share </li></ul><ul><li>personal data </li></ul><ul><li>with social </li></ul><ul><li>contacts, public </li></ul><ul><li>Based on policies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Flickr: Privacy
  5. 5. Flickr: Discovery
  6. 6. Current Mobile Experience <ul><li>Difficult to share (or even save!) </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to find </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No semantic information </li></ul></ul>But wait! There’s more.
  7. 7. ZoneTag <ul><li>2-click upload (same key!) </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic location and time metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Change privacy settings </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging optional </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why Tag? Bay Bridge, Fog, [San Francisco, 94105]
  9. 9. Why Tag? RedSox, Fenway, GreenMonster, [Boston, 02215], …
  10. 10. Why Tag? Horsetails, handicapped, sign, [Stanford, 94305], …
  11. 11. Why Tag? mirror, me, Jenn, [New Haven, 06473], …
  12. 12. Why Tag? Sushi, Gills, Home, Shepherds bush, badger towers , [London, UK], …
  13. 13. OK, so what are we doing here really? <ul><li>Quantitative analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected findings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method/Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerations in privacy management </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Quantitative Analysis - Data <ul><li>350 users, 44,000+ photos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on most active 81 users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photo location and time </li></ul><ul><li>Photo tags </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy settings </li></ul>
  15. 15. Content predicts privacy? Photos with “person” tag All photos
  16. 16. Location predicts privacy? Users Public Locations Average Locations Private Locations Percent of photos
  17. 17. Meanwhile, in the paper <ul><li>Does content predict privacy? </li></ul><ul><li>Does location predict privacy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of photos in a location is a predictor, too. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do users regret/revisit mobile privacy choices? </li></ul><ul><li>What about location disclosure? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Moving on <ul><li>Quantitative analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected findings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method/Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomy </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Inspiration <ul><li>Kinberg, Spasojevic, Fleck, Sellen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Social uses of camera-phones” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nancy van House </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research methodology </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Main Research Question <ul><li>What are the main factors considered when making privacy decisions? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Study Format <ul><li>Reflective Photo Elicitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant’s own photos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to study… photo-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Grounds study with actual behavior </li></ul>
  22. 22. Study Detail <ul><li>Recruited and equipped 15 users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 male, 7 female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 non-technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 20s to early 50s (most in 25-35) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some social connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussed patterns and individual photo decisions </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Interview Findings
  24. 24. Security “ Pictures of the kids... I don’t know if I’d mark public... I don’t know who is out there”. “ If I did something to upset somebody somehow... and they knew where I lived by looking at my photos, that would bother me”. “ There is so much stuff out there, I don’t think I’m really a prime target.”.
  25. 25. Identity Management “ You’ve heard about all these random stories about people on MySpace/YouTube and a HR department will… find stuff” “ I might [upload] as family-only if it was a family event… embarrassing pictures of me and my aunt” “ Portland pictures. Ahh, there is a picture of me. Unflattering”
  26. 26. Sharing convenience “ I made my photos public so I wouldn't have to worry when I gave a friend the URL so they could browse my pictures freely”
  27. 27. Social disclosure “ I added the tag '[bar name]' so he'd know where I was…” “ Nothing marked [private]. It’s almost like the tree the in the forest, why would you take a photo if you didn't want anyone to see it.” “ if I went somewhere and I didn’t invite someone and I didn’t want them to see, I might want to make that [family-only]”.
  28. 28. Privacy Considerations Taxonomy
  29. 29. Taxonomy Breakdown *Warning: do not take these numbers literally.
  30. 30. Other Factors <ul><li>Choice under uncertainty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealing with complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many considerations, options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users often adopt blanket strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users mostly unsatisfied, not regretful </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Implications. Questions. <ul><li>Preventing mistake/reducing impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use cues to detect failures? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staging/review area for recent uploads? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information and feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number and identity of potential viewers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A “show me what they can see” option? </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Implications. Questions. <ul><li>Decoupling discovery and sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Already done since on Flickr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to discourage blanket strategies? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Final Notes <ul><li>All Flickr/ZT photos, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons License, or with author permission </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  34. 34. Questions? <ul><li>Mor Naaman: </li></ul><ul><li>With: Shane Ahern, Dean Eckles, Nathan Good, Simon King, Rahul Nair </li></ul><ul><li>Read more, follow: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Slides: </li></ul><ul><li>Also check out: </li></ul>Morgan Ames, Mor Naaman Why We Tag Wednesday 11:30 B1-B4 Good et al. Noticing Notice Tue. 3:30