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Experiences and open challenges teaching design

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A 6 hour workshop on teaching design (not design thinking)

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Experiences and open challenges teaching design

  1. 1. Experiences and open challenges teaching design Workshop 20 Nov 2014
  2. 2. 150 Slides, 12 Activities in 6 hours 1. Defining and evaluating design 2. Metamorphosis 3. Framing problems in (diverse) teams 4. Cultivating awareness 5. Power of representations 6. Pizza 7. Empathy and insights 8. Functions and programs 9. Briefs 10.Creativity techniques and habits 11.Studio learning and teaching 12.Survey
  3. 3. Papers used to prepare 3.007: Design pedagogy: - Dutton, T. A. (1987). Design and studio pedagogy. Journal of Architectural Educ, 41(1), 16-25. - Dally, J. W., & Zhang, G. M. (1993). A freshman engineering design course. J of Eng Educ, 82(2), 83-91. - Brady, D. A. (1996). The education of an architect: continuity and change. J of Arch Educ, 50(1), 32-49. - Sheppard, S., Jenison, R., Agogino, A., Brereton, M., Bocciarelli, L., Dally, J., & Faste, R. (1997). Examples of freshman design education. Int J of Eng Educ, 13(4), 248-261. - Burton, J. D., & White, D. M. (1999). Selecting a model for freshman engineering design. J of Eng Educ, 88(3), 327-332. - Dym, C. L. (1999). Learning Engineering: design, languages, and experiences. J of Eng Educ, 88(2), 145-148. - Little, P., & Cardenas, M. (2001). Use of “studio” methods in the introductory engineering design curriculum. J of Eng Educ, 90(3), 309-318. - Kuhn, S. (2001). Learning from the architecture studio: Implications for project-based pedagogy. Int J of Eng Educ, 17(4/5), 349-352. - Wood, K. L., Jensen, D., Bezdek, J., & Otto, K. N. (2001). Reverse engineering and redesign: courses to incrementally and systematically teach design. J of Eng Educ, 90(3), 363-374. - Atman, C. J., Cardella, M. E., Turns, J., & Adams, R. (2005). Comparing freshman and senior engineering design processes: an in-depth follow-up study. Design Studies, 26(4), 325-357. - Wang, T. (2010). A new paradigm for design studio education. International Journal of Art & Design Educ, 29(2), 173-183. - Frascara, J., & Noël, G. (2012).What's Missing in Design Educ Today?. Visible Language, 46. - Friedman, K. (2012). Models of Design: Envisioning a Future Design Educ. Visible Language, 46. - Froyd, J. E., Wankat, P. C., & Smith, K. A. (2012). Five major shifts in 100 years of engineering education. Proceedings of the IEEE, 1344-1360. Cross-disciplinary design: - Howard, J. (1997). In Search of the Sweet Spot: Engineering, Arts, and Society in Design Curricula. Department of Science and Technology Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. - Schumacher, J., & Gabriele, G. A. (1999). Product design and innovation: a new curriculum combining the humanities and engineering. Frontiers in Educ Conf. (V1, 11A6-19). IEEE. - Hirsch, P. L., Shwom, B. L., Yarnoff, C., Anderson, J. C., Kelso, D. M., Olson, G. B., & Colgate, J. E. (2001). Engineering design and communication: The case for interdisciplinary collaboration. Int J of Eng Educ, 17(4/5), 343-348. - Bronet, F., Eglash, R., Gabriele, G., Hess, D., & Kagan, L. (2003). Product design and innovation: evolution of an interdisciplinary design curriculum. Int J of Eng Educ, 19(1), 183-191. - Reimer, Y. J., & Douglas, S. A. (2003). Teaching HCI design with the studio approach. Computer Science Educ, 13(3), 191-205. - Goff, R. M., Vernon, M. R., Green, W. R., & Vorster, C. R. (2004, October). Using design-build projects to promote interdisciplinary design. In Frontiers in Educ, 2004. FIE 2004. 34th Annual (pp. S3C-27). IEEE. - Ollis, D. F. (2004). Basic elements of multidisciplinary design courses and projects. Int J of Eng Educ, 20(3), 391- 397. - D'souza, N. S. (2006). Design intelligences: a case for multiple intelligences in architectural design (PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-M). - Greenberg, S. (2009). Embedding a design studio course in a conventional computer science program. In Creativity and HCI: From Experience to Design in Educ (pp. 23-41). Springer US. - De Vere, I., Melles, G., & Kapoor, A. (2010). Product design engineering–a global education trend in multidisciplinary training for creative product design. European Journal of Engineering Educ, 35(1), 33-43. - Cennamo, K., Brandt, C., Scott, B., Douglas, S., McGrath, M., Reimer, Y., & Vernon, M. (2011). Managing the Complexity of Design Problems through Studio-based Learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 5(2). Design methods and teams: - Hitchings, G., & Cox, S. (1991). Designing a Course in Design Methods. Journal of Engineering Design, 2(4), 337- 349. - Atman, C. J., & Bursic, K. M. (1996). Teaching engineering design: Can reading a textbook make a difference?. Research in Engineering Design, 8(4), 240-250. - Jensen, D. D., Murphy, M. D., & Wood, K. L. (1998). Evaluation and refinement of a restructured introduction to engineering design course using student surveys and MBTI data. ASEE Annual Conf. - Sachs, A. (1999). ‘Stuckness’ in the design studio. Design Studies, 20(2), 195-209. - Atman, C. J., Chimka, J. R., Bursic, K. M., & Nachtmann, H. L. (1999). A comparison of freshman and senior engineering design processes. Design Studies, 20(2), 131-152. - Ogot, M., & Okudan, G. E. (2006). Integrating systematic creativity into first-year engineering design. Int J of Eng Educ, 22(1), 109. - Hirsch, P. L., & McKenna, A. F. (2008). Using reflection to promote teamwork understanding in engineering design education. Int J of Eng Educ, 24(2), 377-385. - Atman, C. J., Kilgore, D., & McKenna, A. (2008). Characterizing design learning: A mixed‐methods study. J of Eng Educ, 97(3), 309-326. - Sosa, R. and Albarran, D. (2008) Supporting idea generation in design teams, Engineering and Product Design Educ (EPDE’08). Design reviews, crits and assessments: - Shannon, S. J. (1995). The studio critique in architectural education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Adelaide). - Uluoǧlu, B. (2000). Design knowledge communicated in studio critiques. Design Studies, 21(1), 33-58. - Sara, R., & Parnell, R. (2004). The review process. Transactions, 1(2), 56-69. - Thompson, A., Sattler, B., & Turns, J. (2011, October). Understanding a studio environment: A complex system approach to a community of practice. In Frontiers in Educ Conference (FIE), 2011 (pp. F3H-1). IEEE. - Dannels, D. P., & Martin, K. N. (2008). Critiquing critiques a genre analysis of feedback across novice to expert design studios. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 22(2), 135-159. - Charyton, C., & Merrill, J. A. (2009). Assessing general creativity and creative engineering design in first year engineering students. Journal of Engineering Educ, 98(2), 145-156. - Goldschmidt, G., Hochman, H., & Dafni, I. (2010). The design studio “crit”: Teacher–student communication. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 24(3), 285-302. - Strickfaden, M., & Heylighen, A. (2010). Scrutinizing design educators' perceptions of the design process. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 24(3), 357-366.
  4. 4. Teaching design since 1999: - NUS, Singapore - USYD, Australia - ITESM, Mexico - UAM, Mexico - U Azuay, Ecuador - Isthmus, Panama - SUTD, Singapore - ACI/NTU, Singapore - AUT, New Zealand
  5. 5. Defining and evaluating design
  6. 6. Word association of “design”
  7. 7. Defining design: cases • Select one design that you consider great • Write down what specifically makes it so great • If relevant, apply your disciplinary knowledge to explain • Select 3 criteria that captures the greatness of that design
  8. 8. Defining design: criteria
  9. 9. Defining design: evaluation
  10. 10. YikeBike is a statement about using smart technology to solve the problems of our increasingly congested, polluted, stressful cities. It is the first commercial expression of the mini-farthing concept, created up by a bunch of successful entrepreneurs, engineers and dreamers. We sat down to try and answer: 1. What is the simplest way to get from A to B with the aid of a machine? 2. What is the smallest wheel you can have to get a stable, safe, comfortable ride? 3. Can you make something small enough to be able to go with you anywhere in a city? 4. Wonder if we could make a unicycle dramatically easier to ride and fold? Evaluating and Grading Design: Try it out! $2,000 USD - $3,000 USD http://www.yikebike.com/ Drive: Electric Brushless DC motor Battery: LiFePO4 - 40 min re-charge Speed: 23 km/h Range: 10 km
  11. 11. 1.“More information didn’t change my evaluation significantly” 2.“New information made my evaluation increase” 3.“New information made my evaluation decrease” 4.“The one type of information that significantly changed my evaluation was ______”
  12. 12. Design (not design thinking)
  13. 13. Ambidextrous
  14. 14. “Metamorphosis”
  15. 15. http://www.inc.com/idea-lab/milton-glaser-design-has-nothing-to-do-with-appearance. html http://vimeo.com/5820010
  16. 16. Share experiences and challenges Memorable experiences learning/teaching design Main challenges learning/teaching design
  17. 17. available information time into design project % from total 20 40 60 80 100 design freedom In other words, in design, innovation and entrepreneurship you start making decisions under high uncertainty, and one of your aims becomes to obtain information throughout the process. Alas, you will never have full information about a really novel idea.
  18. 18. What is design? It's where you stand with a foot in two worlds - the world of technology and the world of people and human purposes - and you try to bring the Mitchell Kapor, entrepreneur (1950-) Recognizing the need is the primary condition for design. two together. Charles O. Eames, designer (1907-1978) To invent, you Thomas A. Edison, inventor (1847-1931) need a good imagination and a pile of junk. A designer is an emerging synthesis of artist, inventor, mechanic, objective economist and evolutionary strategist. Richard Buckminster Fuller, architect, designer and inventor (1895-1983) Engineering, medicine, business, architecture and painting are concerned not with the necessary but with the contingent - not with how things are but with how they might be - in short, with design. Herbert A. Simon, economist, computer scientist (1916-2001)
  19. 19. Design is a funny word. Some people think design means how it looks. But of course, if you dig deeper, it's really how it works. Steven P. Jobs, entrepreneur (1955-2011) A great building must begin with the unmeasurable, must go through measurable means when it is being designed and in the end must be unmeasurable Louis Kahn, architect (1901-1974) Necessity is often not the mother of invention. When humans possess a tool, they excel at finding new uses for it. The tool often exists before the problem to be solved David E. Nye, historian (1946-) Form follows function - that has been misunderstood. Form and function should be one, joined in a spiritual union. Frank Lloyd Wright, architect (1867-1959) The practice of design is a very complicated business, involving contrasting skills and a wide field of disciplines. It has always required an odd kind of hybrid to carry it successfully Bruce Archer, engineer and designer (1922-2005)
  20. 20. "you're sitting on a gold mine!“ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOF-j6Nxm04 “What we are trying to do… is remove that barrier” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lvMgMrNDlg&t=6m43s “the germ of the idea was there” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpMeFh37mCE Xerox could have owned the entire computer industry http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_1rXqD6M614 “That perspective is what gives us the feeling…”
  21. 21. Framing problems in (diverse) teams
  22. 22. http://www.ted.com/talks/tom_wujec_build_a_tower
  23. 23. The value of prototyping: One reason why kids do better than business school students is they spend more time playing and prototyping. Adults spend a vast amount of time planning, then executing on the plan, with almost no time to fix their design once they put the marshmallow on top http://marshmallowchallenge.com/Instructions.html
  24. 24. This is a metaphor for the hidden assumptions of a project: that marshmallows are light and fluffy and easily supported by the sticks. Kids naturally start testing their designs with the marshmallow on top. Adults tend to wait until the end to place the marshmallow. After the structure is built, it becomes clear that it is not so light! We need to identify the assumptions in our project - the real customer needs, the cost of the product, the duration of the service - and test them early and often http://marshmallowchallenge.com/Instructions.html
  25. 25. Reflect: - Your role, strengths and behaviour during the activity - Interaction with your teammates - Communication - Agreements, negotiation, synergies - What other teams did - Understanding, interpreting, planning and executing plans - Unexpected events and recovery - Action plan for the term project
  26. 26. Evaluate & refine Not so well-framed problems: 1. “I want to help people lower their energy consumption by automating lights at home” 2. “Students need a system to locate their lecturers outside class hours” 3. “Buildings should promote courteous behaviours between dwellers” 4. “We will design a baby stroller that harvests energy” 5. “The efficiency of garbage collection (cleaners) needs to be increased” Well-framed problems: 1. “How to help people optimise energy consumption at home” 2. “How can we help (what type?) students clarify doubts outside class hours?” 3. “Physical environment is not conducive for positive interactions among dwellers” 4. “How may a lengthy daily activity harvest energy?”
  27. 27. What people… Methods Knowledge Say Do Know and feel Interviews Observation Generative sessions Explicit Tacit Latent Deep Surface Adapted from: maketools.com
  28. 28. Cultivating awareness [Close your eyes]
  29. 29. Introduction to Design 3.007 design.sutd.edu.sg AEIOU framework: - Activities: goal-directed actions. What are the modes people work in, and the specific activities and processes they go through? - Environments: arena where activities take place. What is the character and function of the space overall, of each individual's spaces, and of shared spaces? - Interactions: between people or with designs. What is the nature of routine and special interactions between people, between people and objects in their environment, and across distances? - Objects: building blocks of environment, artefacts, spaces. What are the objects and devices people have in their environments and how do they relate to their activities? - Users: people whose behaviours, preferences, and needs are being observed. Who is there? What are their roles and relationships? What are their values and prejudices? http://help.ethnohub.com/guide/aeiou-framework
  30. 30. AEIOU Description (what is) Analysis (why it is) Questions, insights Comparison to assumptions, to other situations and to notes by other observers Activities Environments Interactions Objects Users
  31. 31. Share experiences and challenges Memorable experiences in observation Main challenges in observation
  32. 32. Power of representations
  33. 33. Introduction to Design 3.007 design.sutd.edu.sg Idea sketching: - Not artistic drawing - A universal skill to think and communicate (like writing) - Speed is more important than accuracy or artistry - Learn to sketch: - To observe and interpret - To think and conceptualise - To generate and develop ideas - To communicate and convince
  34. 34. Introduction to Design 3.007 design.sutd.edu.sg
  35. 35. Thomas Edison J. Utzon Frank Gehry http://www.brookbanham.com/sketches A. G. Bell Key idea is: speed sketching is NOT about aesthetic quality, but seeing/thinking/communicating in more and flexible ways to represent ideas
  36. 36. Lines
  37. 37. Extrusion
  38. 38. Orthogonal
  39. 39. Draw this shape http://images.bit-tech.net/content_images/2010/08/fun-with-remote-control-vehicles/ar.drone.jpg
  40. 40. Draw http://inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2012/07/Marfa-10by10-Candid-Rogers-Architect-3.jpg
  41. 41. Draw 3 views of: http://www.piborg.com/images/TriBorg/TriBorg-PiCy-Full.png
  42. 42. Build something with: url
  43. 43. Draw a happy cube no decorations, only shape
  44. 44. Draw a baby cube
  45. 45. Draw an angry cube
  46. 46. BASIC TECHNIQUES Jackson, Paul. Folding Techniques for Designers: From Sheet to Form. London: Laurence King, 2011. Introduction to Design
  47. 47. Jackson, Paul. Folding Techniques for Designers: From Sheet to Form. London: Laurence King, 2011. Introduction to Design
  48. 48. Jackson, Paul. Folding Techniques for Designers: From Sheet to Form. London: Laurence King, 2011. Introduction to Design
  49. 49. Jackson, Paul. Folding Techniques for Designers: From Sheet to Form. London: Laurence King, 2011. Introduction to Design
  50. 50. Jackson, Paul. Folding Techniques for Designers: From Sheet to Form. London: Laurence King, 2011. Introduction to Design
  51. 51. Jackson, Paul. Folding Techniques for Designers: From Sheet to Form. London: Laurence King, 2011. Introduction to Design
  52. 52. Activity Teams 1, 2: At least 10 ways of weighing an elephant Teams 3, 4, 5: A smartphone stand that amplifies sound
  53. 53. Activity - Test early (weight AND sound) - Individual AND team - Paper AND other materials? - Sound, not screen
  54. 54. Empathy and insights
  55. 55. Interviewing activity: 1. Form triads (A, B, C) where the following roles are assigned: interviewer, interviewee and observer 2. Roles: 1. The interviewer conducts a natural conversation with the interviewee to obtain information defined by the instructors. 2. The interviewee engages in the conversation facilitated by the interviewer, responding openly and as naturally as possible. 3. The observer remains silent analysing the conversation, taking notes of the process: how the interviewer starts and stirs the dialogue, how the questions succeed/fail to engage the interviewee. 3. Activity: 1. Form triads A, B, C. The instructors will define the roles and request that interviewees leave the room for 3 minutes. The instructors share with interviewers and observers what is the theme for today’s exercise, and they discuss and prepare a strategy and guiding questions to conduct the interview. 2. Interviewees enter the room, and the groups start the interview process. Observers are strictly barred from talking, gesturing or in any way communicating or interfering in the interview. Their role is unobtrusive and passive, taking notes of the flow of the process (successful and unsuccessful ‘moves’). Interviewers take note of the most important responses and write down new questions to ask. 3. After 15 minutes, the interviews stop and each of the participants writes down their experience, aided by the prompts provided here. 4. Share lessons learned and questions Prompts: - For interviewees: - What part(s) of the conversation made you feel comfortable and to open up, reflect and share your ideas? - What part(s) of the conversation were uncomfortable or awkward and made the interview less effective or enjoyable? - What would you have done differently if you were the interviewer? - What are good ways to make someone feel that you are really listening to what they are saying? - For interviewers: - What worked or didn’t work from your initial strategy or plan to run the interview? - What do you think worked or didn’t work to make the interviewee open up and share their ideas? - What would you do differently next time you interview someone? - For observers: - What part(s) of the conversation do you think were more effective? - What part(s) of the conversation do you think were less effective? - What do you think that the interviewer could have done differently? - What do you think that the interviewee could have done differently? - Why do you think it is difficult to interview people in general? - Why do you think it is useful to interview people in general? - For all: - How are interview questions different from survey questions?
  56. 56. Questions to ask yourself when planning an interview or a survey: - Can I get this information in easier or more reliable ways? (Census, published studies, estimates) - What do I want to find out with this activity? - Who should we talk to? Am I avoiding sample biases? - How can we approach people to build trust and obtain meaningful responses? - How might the interviewee feel engaged or offended or interested in this dialogue? - How would I feel if someone asked me these questions? How can my intent be misunderstood? - What ethical risks am I taking? What assumptions are we making? - How many people do we need to talk to? - Have we piloted our questions? Are they clear? - How can we critically analyse what people told us? What didn’t they tell us? - Do the responses simply confirm my own biases and ideas? Or do they reveal new, unexpected issues? - Why are these responses so consistent/inconsistent, short/long, clear/confusing, expected/unexpected? - Are these responses useful to reveal and clarify issues, or can we justify conclusions from them?
  57. 57. How often do you use it? Do you know how to do __ function? What problems do you have? Do you like it? Which one do you prefer? How do you use it? Please teach me how to do __ function Troubleshoot problem ___ What do you like/annoys you most? Compare
  58. 58. How many hours do you sleep? Do you feel rested in the morning? Do you have insomnia? Would you like to track your sleep patterns? Do you think you get less/average/more sleep than your peers? Why is that? Would you like to change something about your sleep?
  59. 59. “ The problem/issue our team is interested is: __________________________” Human Personal Society Physical Psychological Emotional Safety Usability Time Growth Change Movement Flows Interactions Cycles Operation Environment Context Resources Climate Waste Transportation Footprint Pollution Economy Finance Profits Distribution Labour Costs Income Culture History Institutions Political Laws and rules Traditions Power Information Aesthetic Form Meaning Perception Experience Composition Proportion Technology Materials Systems Knowledge Access Functions Energy Science Others …
  60. 60. Sample questions: Food: 1. How would you use food to introduce your own culture to your friends? 2. What guides your decision in your choice of food? (general) 3. What are the factors you consider when preparing meals for your family? (assumptions) 4. What are some food which you should avoid yet continue to eat? 5. What do you think are the sickness/disease eating this food? 6. Would you like to change your eating patterns? 7. How health conscious are you about the choice of what you eat? (pressure) 8. How does the presentation of food affect your appetite? 9. How does the material of your eating utensils affect your appetite? Sleep: 1. How often do you feel tired in the morning? 2. What activities do you do before you sleep? 3. What is your sleeping position?
  61. 61. Share experiences and challenges Memorable experiences cultivating empathy Main challenges cultivating empathy
  62. 62. Functions and programs
  63. 63. Activity Diagrams: Hotel check-in The green diagram models the current customer experience of entering a hotel where guests (family) arrive through the entrance, split during check-in such that one person checks in and the rest can wait in the lobby; and finally after check-in the family goes to the hotel room together. Challenge elements and relationships; think of alternatives. For example, reverse the main person flow from entrance to the reception triggers an idea of having the receptionist walk to the arriving family instead. Complete the check-in process in the hotel room thus eliminating the lobby function. Reception Entrance Lobby Hotel room Reception Hotel room Family Entrance Family Rest of the family One person One person Family Family Receptionist Rizal Muslimin
  64. 64. Strategy: Reversal LOUNGE SEAT & CHECK IN ROOM REST RECEPTIONIST GATE ENTER Reverse the direction in the relationship Instead, make the receptionist approach the guest
  65. 65. Analysis: Technology LOUNGE SEAT ROOM REST RECEPTION CHECK IN GATE ENTER Automation
  66. 66. Strategy: Substitution Replace existing component with new technology AUTO-RECEPTION CHECK IN ROOM REST GATE ENTER
  67. 67. Strategy: Subtraction AUTO-RECEPTION CHECK IN ROOM REST GATE ENTER Eliminate one or more component In this case, the gate or the lobby it self.
  68. 68. Functions ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
  69. 69. Analysis • Activity diagram of doing your laundry •Functional model of your washing machine
  70. 70. Design Briefs
  71. 71. From problems to strategies to solutions Engineering Design and Communication. Principles and Practice. Yarnoff et al., Northwestern University Basic parts of a design brief: 1.Goals and vision of the new design 2.Budget and schedule 3.Target audience and scope of the project 4.Analysis of precedents, functions, activities 5.Requirements 6.Constraints including resources and time 7.Deliverables and deadlines webdesignerdepot.com
  72. 72. Oakley Disruptive By Design Competition Brief: “Create an innovative design that will disrupt elite sports performance in a way that hasn’t been seen before. It needs to be an idea that's more than just an adaptation of an existing approach. It needs to be something new and radical. Something that is truly Disruptive by Design. The most disruptive ideas come from unfamiliar and unexpected places. Take inspiration from the wider world: nature, aerospace, architecture, science fiction. There should be no limits to your sources. There are also no restrictions on the format of the design. It could be a product, a garment, a new way to use technology, a digital design, or something entirely new that responds to or enhances elite sports performance. Prove that you have what it takes to be one of the disruptors of the future, and you could win the opportunity to immerse yourself in the R&D culture at Oakley’s Design HQ in California, USA.” More: disruptivebydesign.com
  73. 73. “…when I first entered the company I often said that I wanted to make the sort of games you could play with your grandmother. I had an image of games not feeling out of place in the living room. Of course, this could have been around the fireplace, at the dining table, the coffee table, or anywhere. I just wanted to make a game that would be fun for the entire family. I've found myself sitting all alone, starting up a game and feeling a bit cut off from the world. I wanted to change this. That is, I wanted to make gaming a little less lonely. In my mind, the Wii Remote belongs on the coffee table. I spent a long time discussing with a whole range of people about what we could do to achieve this” Listening to everyone here talk about Wii reminds me that the most important thing was clearly defining our vision. Even if it was a vision without a precedent.” iwataasks.nintendo.com/interviews/#/wii/wii_channels/0/0
  74. 74. Strategies that are too general: 1. Child obesity in Singapore 2. People want to optimise energy usage but find current solutions difficult to install and use 3. To help youngsters develop teamwork skills 4. Reduce water consumption in washing machines for the home 5.Many elderly suffer social isolation 6. Incentivise courteous behaviour in the subway (MRT) Strategies that are too specific 1. To design a GPS-enabled game to make children do exercise 2. ‘DIY plug-and-play’ sensors to automate lights eliminating need of expensive installations 3. Design fun activities (games) to teach youngsters teamwork 4. Design a waterless and ozone-based laundry system for the home 5.Make elderly go out and socialise more 6. Use augmented reality to promote proper use of reserved seating in the subway (MRT)
  75. 75. Evaluate & refine Poor requirements: 1. The product should be lightweight 2. This product needs to be safe 3. The product should be user-friendly 4. The product needs to be low cost 5. The design needs to be sustainable www.sciencebuddies.org/engineering-design-process/design-requirements-examples.shtml Better requirements: 1. The product…
  76. 76. Creativity techniques and habits
  77. 77. Rules of brainstorming Individually list the main rules of brainstorming Consolidate in teams and present
  78. 78. Brainstorming rules [Can be used to explore problem and/or solutions] 1. Define goals and keep focus 2. Set time limit (max 20’) 3. Maximise quantity: a storm of ideas 4. Defer evaluation: no judging, no criticising, no praising 5. Build on the ideas of others: combine, improve and transform ideas (1+1=3, opposite of green?) 6. Prioritise unusual, wild, crazy and silly ideas 7. Flat hierarchies 8. Learn to listen 9. Decompose and mix ideas 10. Take turns, take individual notes 11. Capture ideas (writing, sketching, audio record) 12. Avoid claiming ownership 13. Build rapport
  79. 79. Practice (pairs) Ideation: ShapeStorm Exploration and exploitation
  80. 80. C-Sketch (N-3-5) Collaborative Sketch: - N individuals form a team, they sketch 3 or more ideas on a large format paper and pass their drawings every 5 minutes until one cycle is completed - Participants are encouraged to draw on others' ideas for inspiration, thus stimulating the creative process - Ambiguity, re-interpretation and re-representation are supported by this technique - Activity is strictly run in complete silence
  81. 81. Suggestions to cultivate creativity beyond the use of techniques: • Become an avid learner across traditional disciplines (and unlearn a few things, too) • Make things, build stuff (and break apart others) • Sketch and write down your ideas • Cultivate analogical/metaphorical reasoning • Be curious, inquisitive and persevere, question everything • Identify your strengths, find your own way • Learn to collaborate, find partners and accomplices • Try new things once in a while, if possible visit or travel to unexpected places • Talk to strangers, watch and read unfamiliar topics • Improvise, be flexible, adapt and don’t be afraid to change your mind • Ask questions, value feedback, learn to listen • Learn a few techniques and practice, practice, practice
  82. 82. “a bestselling book on creativity for people who do not like books on creativity”
  83. 83. “You cannot prove from past data whether any new thing in the world – any new idea or innovation – will work. Managers are inclined when someone puts forth with a new idea to respond, “Prove it in order for me to go forward”. That’s what a good manager does these days – he or she is analytical and asks for proof. But since you can’t prove a new idea in advance, all the new ideas are viewed as dangerous and problematic because they aren’t provable.” Roger Martin, Dean of Rotman School of Management
  84. 84. Individual survey self-perception of creativity
  85. 85. Experiences and challenges Memorable experiences generating/evaluating ideas Main challenges generating/evaluating ideas
  86. 86. http://www.mech.utah.edu/senior_design/07/uploads/Main/Lect12-ConceptSelection.pdf
  87. 87. Studio learning and teaching
  88. 88. Introduction to Design 3.007 design.sutd.edu.sg Early evaluation Desirability Feasibility Viability
  89. 89. DATUM OPTION 1 OPTION 2 OPTION 3 Swivel Chair w/ Hinge Leg Hydraulic Swivel Chair Shower Grips Tub Door Sketches 0 + + - + 0 0 + - 0 - + + - 0 CRITERIA Aesthetics Intuitive use 0 + 0 - + 0 0 + 0 - 0 0 0 + + 0 + 0 Total + 0 1 8 3 Total 0 0 7 1 7 Total - 0 3 2 1 0 -2 6 2 Space required Universal TOTAL DATUM Cost (low preferred) Ease of installation Safety in use Ease of entering/exiting tub Ease of maintenance Bathing comfort Noise OPTION New Seating ledge + + + 0 0 + + + 0 0 + 7 4 0 7 Preliminary concept rating using a Pugh chart including adding a new concept after “attacking the negatives” The essence of using a Pugh chart is to define the evaluation criteria based on your requirements, assess a selected set of concepts against those criteria, discuss the assessment and results as a team, improve the concepts by attacking the negatives and finally select one or few concepts for further exploration. For this early rating , it is advisable to start with a minimal ranking scale of {+, 0, -} and compare the concepts against a ‘datum’ (usually a competitor’s product or the current solution).
  90. 90. One Selection Tool + a few Objections Video: “The Concept Selection Matrix” by K. Ulrich Https://class.coursera.org/design-002/lecture/40 “You shouldn’t get too excited” (08:46) “We can’t reduce everything to a quantitative evaluation” (11:20) 103
  91. 91. "both quantitative and qualitative factors must be taken into account… Design is a messy kind of business that involves making value judgements between alternatives” 104
  92. 92. Things to consider… • Engage in open team discussions when defining the matrix (rows and columns) • Be careful of aggregate criteria, when relevant: decompose, clarify, prioritise • Upon difficulties and conflicts, establish ground rules and repeat the activity • Distinguish between objective and subjective indicators, define them carefully. Beware of: “we usually measure what is easy to measure, not necessarily what is important” • Don’t focus on the values themselves, use them to talk about the ideas and what is truly important in a holistic way • Work across teams: get feedback from people who are not familiar with your project 105
  93. 93. Pugh Chart: Design Chart DATUM OPTION 1 OPTION2 OPTION 3 OPTION 4 OPTION 5 OPTION 6 OPTION 7 Sketches CRITERIA DATUM Total + 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  94. 94. Critique http://www.boyinpinkearmuffs.com/banapplenut/comic/dance-critique/
  95. 95. http://makecollab.com/2012/the-college-critique-whos-to-blame/
  96. 96. http://www.slideshare.net/frogdesign/making-clients-part-of-the-design-process
  97. 97. http://99u.com/articles/7224/why-fighting-for-our-ideas-makes-them-better
  98. 98. Prototyping minecraft.net
  99. 99. Prototyping Scenarios http://martini.mitplw.com/blog/?p=954
  100. 100. Prototyping Scenarios http://martini.mitplw.com/blog/?p=954
  101. 101. Key Q’s What needs testing? Scale, assemblies and materials? Structural behaviour and costs? Physical or virtual prototype? Decisions to build model/prototype: materials, processes, time, modifications… Appearance or functionality or usability? Parallel or serial prototypes? Available resources? Learning? Persuasiveness?
  102. 102. Evaluate & refine Prototyping: transformable furniture
  103. 103. Prototyping http://martini.mitplw.com/blog/?p=954
  104. 104. Restrain Actuate
  105. 105. Who would most benefit from this? Target Area Typically Dead Space?
  106. 106. Wishful Reality
  107. 107. Side crank Center handle top view top view
  108. 108. 2mg Mg How much force is on this support? What diameter should it be? What clearance is needed here? http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BookStackingProblem.html
  109. 109. Arch Gameplay? Actuate Need Two Folks? Actuate What’s underneath?
  110. 110. Restrain Actuate Add Side Walls? Add Wheels?
  111. 111. What determines slot elongation? How to get rid of horrible hack job
  112. 112. feels grounded… feels flying… 50mm 75mm 5mm
  113. 113. How should the mechanism feel?
  114. 114. Comfort levels? Add safety features? Burning Joules?
  115. 115. One-off piece or mass production? Unitized? Stand alone units Modular? Plug In Units Support Structure What happens if many together Just stand next to one another Could they be interlocking?
  116. 116. Material affective and performance properties? Energy/Cost? Weight? Strength? Texture? Colors? Haptics?
  117. 117. So what is the difference, impact, innovation etc?
  118. 118. A B C http://25.media.tumblr.com/935fa0bd19cd7f4edfcb7528cffd21ad/tumblr_mga6unWcNt1rgmlf9o1_1280.jpg Ford Model T http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/7213 F K N R S http://www.goldcoastmodela.com/Early_Ford.pdf http://www.mtfca.com/discus/messages/331880/347933.html?1363551928
  119. 119. http://www.andrewmoisey.com/guernica2.html
  120. 120. $100 laptop: 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/4292854.stm
  121. 121. http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Pictures
  122. 122. http://news.cnet.com/2300-11386_3-10012657-7.html
  123. 123. http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Pictures “XO laptop”
  124. 124. http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Pictures http://www.flickr.com/photos/pete/sets/72057594143224765/with/152123539/
  125. 125. http://www.fuseproject.com/pdf/OLPC%20Case%20Study.pdf OLPC: 2007
  126. 126. http://www.fuseproject.com/category-1-product-65
  127. 127. Fernando Prieto, Ricardo Sosa. “TetraBus”: Children Museum on Wheels. Client: Tetra Pak Mexico (1996-1997)
  128. 128. Co-Design and Low-Fidelity Prototyping: Immediate and sketchy 3D representations using paper, cardboard and any available parts http://www.studiotilt.com/blog/2011/02/03/the-hub-kings-cross-co-design-workshop/ http://paipr.wordpress.com/projects/rapid-low-fi-prototyping/ http://www.robives.com/blog/swinging_legs_experiment
  129. 129. http://www.slideshare.net/lightingbeetle MVP: Minimum Viable Product
  130. 130. 148
  131. 131. Pivot http://www.fastcompany.com/1836238/how-eric-ries-coined-pivot-and- what-your-business-can-learn-it
  132. 132. Introduction to Design 3.007 Project-oriented learning Studio-based learning PROJECT ≈ STUDIO week 1 discover define develop deliver
  133. 133. Grading: rubrics [Assessment of posters: individual grading, inter-rater agreement]
  134. 134. Individual Survey - Reflection of initial ‘word association’ exercise - Main departure(s) from “Metamorphosis” survey? - Main learning today (3 ideas from course, peers, own) - Main To-Do items from today (“I need to…”)
  135. 135. • “Achieving a good aesthetic (appearance) of products is the main purpose of design” • “A good designer achieves an optimal (the best) solution” • “Great designers educate the public on what they need/desire” • “Products that are aesthetically pleasant are well-designed products” • “The design process can be highly systematised by methods and techniques” • “Good design decisions are based on measurable factors and indicators” • “The decisions that really matter in the design process aren’t measurable at all” • “Good designers should spend little time in framing a problem and most of their effort in generating solutions” • “Mediocre designers often change the problem, requirements and constraints given to them in the brief or contract” • “Mediocre designers tend to work in several projects at the same time, combining ideas between projects” • “Curiosity is the most important part of the design process” • “The success of a product in the marketplace is caused mainly by its high quality and design” • “In a team, it is easy to spot the great ideas contributed by the most creative designers”
  136. 136. Design methods, techniques and tutorials: - Hanington, B. and Martin, B. (2012) Universal Methods of Design, Rockport - Dym, C.L. and Little, P. (2009) Engineering Design, John Wiley & Sons - Kumar, V. (2013) 101 Design Methods, John Wiley & Sons - Sanders, E. and Jan Stappers, P. (2012) Convivial Toolbox, BIS Publishers - Smulders, F., Brehmer, M. and van der Meer, H. (2014) Teamworks by students, for students, Mosaic. - Human-centred design toolkit by IDEO - Experience Workbook, California College of the Arts - Design Council UK methods: www.designcouncil.org.uk/news-opinion/introducing-design- methods - Design and Communication course at Northwestern - Google Design Sprint: www.gv.com/lib/the-product-design-sprint-a-five-day-recipe-for-startups - Design Manifestos: backspace.com/notes/2009/07/design-manifestos.php - Design: Creation of artifacts in society by Karl T. Ulrich, University of Pennsylvania, 2011 - The Design of Design: Essays from a Computer Scientist by Frederick P. Brooks Jr., Addison-Wesley Professional, 2010 - MindTools techniques: mindtools.com - Design Methods: dschool.stanford.edu/use-our-methods - Folding Techniques for Designers: From Sheet to Form. Paul Jackson Inspiring talks: - David Goldberg engineering education: youtu.be/Rp9PfqUQ8a4 - Plus-ing: www.edutopia.org/randy-nelson-school-to-career-video - Learn to pivot: www.fastcompany.com/1836238/how-eric-ries-coined-pivot-and-what-your- business-can-learn-it - The Story of stuff: www.storyofstuff.org - Ken Robinson on creativity: www.ted.com/speakers/sir_ken_robinson - Bran Ferren art and engineering: www.ted.com/speakers/bran_ferren - C. Downey design with the blind in mind: ted.com/speakers/chris_downey - John Maeda art, design and technology: ted.com/speakers/john_maeda - Alastair Parvin WikiHouse: www.wikihouse.cc - J. Hockenberry we are all designers: ted.com/speakers/john_hockenberry Design apps, portals and resources: - Massive Change Network: www.massivechangenetwork.com - Aviary: www.aviary.com - Blender 3D: blender.org - SketchUp 3D: sketchup.com - Architecture for humanity: architectureforhumanity.org - Product design articles: www.core77.com/reactor - 99% perspiration: 99u.com/articles - Architectural Digest: www.architecturaldigest.com - Lean StartupMeets Design Thinking: youtube.com/watch?v=bvFnHzU4_W8 - Recommended apps: - Color Scheme Generator by wanobano - Color Harmonizer by Brandon Burton - 6 Thinking Hats by Zmok - IdeaCard by crevatelab - Create-O-Mat by gagarin - Idea Growr by Julius Huijnk - Patent Search Free by CRinUS - GanttMan by Martin doudera - Alarm Clock Plus by Binary Tactics - Studio Design by Overlay - Moldiv by JellyBus - iD Cards by Loughborough University - Design Dimensions by Arc Mist - Evernote by Evernote Corp - SwatchMatic by AppBaan - Designmuseum Danmark by Designmuseum - VideoShow by X-Video Studio
  137. 137. Thank you! sosa.ricardo@gmail.com

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