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Rising and declining cities a the North of the Tarraconensis: some cases of study

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Material de apoyo de la charla que, el día 3 de junio, el Prof. Dr. D. Javier Andreu, titular de Historia Antigua y Arqueología en la Universidad de Navarra, impartió en la Universität Hamburg, en Alemania, en el maco de los seminarios y conferencias organizadas periódicamente por dicha institución: https://www.kultur.uni-hamburg.de/ka/ueber-uns/news/2019-vortrag-pintado.html

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Rising and declining cities a the North of the Tarraconensis: some cases of study

  1. 1. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 11 Rising and declining citiesRising and declining cities at the North of the Tarraconensis: some cases of studyat the North of the Tarraconensis: some cases of study
  2. 2. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 22 Just a way to say thanks!Just a way to say thanks! The surveys of the Hamburg/Trier team in Cinco Villas de AragónThe surveys of the Hamburg/Trier team in Cinco Villas de Aragón
  3. 3. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 33 Too many possibilities for a still-unexplored Roman city…Too many possibilities for a still-unexplored Roman city… The results at Campo Real/FilleraThe results at Campo Real/Fillera
  4. 4. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 44 …… and many possibilities also for a excavation still in progress after ten yearsand many possibilities also for a excavation still in progress after ten years The results at Los BañalesThe results at Los Bañales
  5. 5. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 55 Two steps in a clear evolutionTwo steps in a clear evolution Noctes AtticaeNoctes Atticae 16, 13, 916, 13, 9 Aulus Gellius (126-190 AD) << But the relationship of the “colonies” is a<< But the relationship of the “colonies” is a different onedifferent one (sed coloniarum alia necessitudo est)(sed coloniarum alia necessitudo est);; for they do not come into citizenship from without,for they do not come into citizenship from without, nor grow from roots of their own, but they are as itnor grow from roots of their own, but they are as it were transplantedwere transplanted (quasi propagatae sunt)(quasi propagatae sunt) from thefrom the State and have all the laws and institutions of theState and have all the laws and institutions of the Roman people, not those of their own choice. ThisRoman people, not those of their own choice. This condition, although it is more exposed to controlcondition, although it is more exposed to control and less freeand less free (magis obnoxia et minus libera)(magis obnoxia et minus libera),, is,is, nevertheless thought preferable and superiornevertheless thought preferable and superior because of the greatness and majesty of the Romanbecause of the greatness and majesty of the Roman people, of which those colonies seem to bepeople, of which those colonies seem to be miniatures, at is were, and in a way copiesminiatures, at is were, and in a way copies (quasi(quasi effigies paruae simulacraque)effigies paruae simulacraque) >>>>
  6. 6. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 66 Two steps in a clear evolutionTwo steps in a clear evolution EpistulaeEpistulae, 26, 55, 26, 55 Ausonius (310-395 AD) << Whereas thou dost fix my Spanish dwelling-<< Whereas thou dost fix my Spanish dwelling- place in ruined citiesplace in ruined cities (aut quae deiectis ruinis)(aut quae deiectis ruinis) traversing in thy verse desolate towns, and castesttraversing in thy verse desolate towns, and castest in my teeth, mountainin my teeth, mountain CalagurrisCalagurris,, BilbilisBilbilis hanginghanging from its jagged cragsfrom its jagged crags (iuga per seruposa)(iuga per seruposa), and, and IlerdaIlerda prostrate on its hill-side >>prostrate on its hill-side >>
  7. 7. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 77 Ancient and traditional viewsAncient and traditional views Some issues connected with the development of cities under AugustusSome issues connected with the development of cities under Augustus
  8. 8. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 88 The city as an “ideal” way of lifeThe city as an “ideal” way of life Some ideals connected with urban life and urban ideology in Roman timesSome ideals connected with urban life and urban ideology in Roman times
  9. 9. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 99 Roman cities at the juridical district ofRoman cities at the juridical district of Caesar AugustaCaesar Augusta: the: the cCCAcCCA * Our area of interestOur area of interest
  10. 10. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 1010 Our area of interestOur area of interest Roman network at the juridical district ofRoman network at the juridical district of Caesar AugustaCaesar Augusta: the: the cCCAcCCA
  11. 11. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 1111 * * * * * * * * * Our area of interestOur area of interest A very well urbanized and popularted are betweenA very well urbanized and popularted are between PompeloPompelo andand Caesar AugustaCaesar Augusta
  12. 12. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 1212 The description of the region in PlinyThe description of the region in Pliny Naturalis HistoriaNaturalis Historia, 3, 3, 24, 3, 3, 24 Pliny the ElderPliny the Elder (23-79(23-79 AD)AD) <<<< Caesar AugustaCaesar Augusta, a colony that pays no taxes, is washed by, a colony that pays no taxes, is washed by the river Ebro; its site was once occupied by a town calledthe river Ebro; its site was once occupied by a town called SalduieSalduie, belonging to the district of Edetania. It his the centre for, belonging to the district of Edetania. It his the centre for 55 peoples; of these with the rights of Roman citizens55 peoples; of these with the rights of Roman citizens (ex his(ex his ciuium Romanorum)ciuium Romanorum) are theare the BilbilitaniBilbilitani, the, the CelcensesCelcenses (once a(once a colony), thecolony), the CalagurritaniCalagurritani (surnamed(surnamed NasiciNasici), the), the IlerdensesIlerdenses belonging to the race of thebelonging to the race of the SurdaonesSurdaones next to the rivernext to the river SicorisSicoris,, thethe OscensesOscenses of the district of Suessetania, and theof the district of Suessetania, and the TuriassonenesTuriassonenes; with the old Latin rights are the; with the old Latin rights are the CascantensesCascantenses (Latinorum ueterum Cascantenses)(Latinorum ueterum Cascantenses),, ErgauicensesErgauicenses,, GraccurritaniGraccurritani,, LeonicensesLeonicenses andand OsicerdensesOsicerdenses; bound by treaty; bound by treaty are theare the TarracensesTarracenses (foederatos Tarracenses)(foederatos Tarracenses); tributary; tributary (stipendiarios)(stipendiarios) are theare the ArcobrigensesArcobrigenses,, AndelonensesAndelonenses,, AracelitaniAracelitani,, BursaonensesBursaonenses,, CalagurritaniCalagurritani surnamedsurnamed FibularensesFibularenses,, ConplutensesConplutenses,, CarensesCarenses,, CinciensesCincienses,, CortonensesCortonenses,, DamanitaniDamanitani,, IspallensesIspallenses,, IlursensesIlursenses,, IluberitaniIluberitani,, IacetaniIacetani,, LibiensesLibienses,, PompelonensesPompelonenses andand SegiensesSegienses >>>>
  13. 13. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 1313 11 22 33 44 55 The archaeological site of Los BañalesThe archaeological site of Los Bañales An area with many research’s possibilities: Los Bañales (y II) (photo: Arqueocad)An area with many research’s possibilities: Los Bañales (y II) (photo: Arqueocad)
  14. 14. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 1414 The archaeological site of Santa CrizThe archaeological site of Santa Criz An excavated site still waiting for its interpretation (photo: Juanmi Círez)An excavated site still waiting for its interpretation (photo: Juanmi Círez) 11 22 33 44 55
  15. 15. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 1515 The concept ofThe concept of parua oppidaparua oppida De ChorographiaDe Chorographia 2, 902, 90 Pomponius MelaPomponius Mela (h. 30 AD)(h. 30 AD) <<<< Then, nearThen, near TarracoTarraco, are the small towns, are the small towns (ide(ide ad Tarraconem parua sunt oppida)ad Tarraconem parua sunt oppida) ofof BlandaeBlandae,, IluroIluro,, BaetuloBaetulo,, BarcinoBarcino,, SuburSubur andand TolobiTolobi; small; small rivers, therivers, the BaetuloBaetulo beside Mt. Jupiter, thebeside Mt. Jupiter, the RubricatumRubricatum on the shore ofon the shore of BarcinoBarcino, and the, and the MaisMais betweenbetween SuburSubur andand TolobisTolobis.. TarracoTarraco is theis the city on these shores that is wealthiest in maritimecity on these shores that is wealthiest in maritime resourcesresources (Tarraco urbs est in his oris(Tarraco urbs est in his oris maritimarum opulentissima) >>maritimarum opulentissima) >>
  16. 16. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 1616 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The profile of those small cities as shooting stars (drawing by I. Diéguez)The profile of those small cities as shooting stars (drawing by I. Diéguez)
  17. 17. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 1717 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The role of the colonies asThe role of the colonies as propugnacula Imperiipropugnacula Imperii
  18. 18. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 1818 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The role of the road-system and the city networkThe role of the road-system and the city network
  19. 19. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 1919 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The role of the army: infrastructures and spread of public imageThe role of the army: infrastructures and spread of public image
  20. 20. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 2020 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The development of infrastructures (The development of infrastructures (IRMNIRMN 1, Castiliscar)1, Castiliscar) Imp(erator) Ca[esar diui f(ilius)]Imp(erator) Ca[esar diui f(ilius)] Aug[ustus co(n)s(ul) XI]Aug[ustus co(n)s(ul) XI] tr[i]bun[ic(ia) potes(tate) XV]tr[i]bun[ic(ia) potes(tate) XV] XV im[p(erator) XIII]XV im[p(erator) XIII] 55 [pont]ifex max[s]u(mus)[pont]ifex max[s]u(mus) Leg(io) IIII Mac(edonica)Leg(io) IIII Mac(edonica) M(ilia) <passuum> [L]XIIXM(ilia) <passuum> [L]XIIX
  21. 21. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 2121 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The development of infrastructures (The development of infrastructures (HEpHEp17, 645-652)17, 645-652) L(egio)· IIIIL(egio)· IIII ⋅⋅ M(acedonica)M(acedonica) L(egio)L(egio) ⋅⋅ M(acedonica)M(acedonica)
  22. 22. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 2222 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The aqueduct as a symbol ofThe aqueduct as a symbol of RomanitasRomanitas
  23. 23. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 2323 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The aqueduct as a symbol ofThe aqueduct as a symbol of RomanitasRomanitas
  24. 24. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 2424 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The spread of the public image (The spread of the public image (EpigraphicaEpigraphica, 78, 2016), 78, 2016) L(ucio)· CaesariL(ucio)· Caesari ⋅⋅ AugustiAugusti f(ilio)f(ilio)
  25. 25. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 2525 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The spread of the public image (The spread of the public image (HEpHEp5, 916)5, 916) C(aio)· CaesariC(aio)· Caesari ⋅⋅ AugustiAugusti f(ilio)f(ilio)
  26. 26. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 2626 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The role of the imperial cult: official propaganda and local loyaltyThe role of the imperial cult: official propaganda and local loyalty
  27. 27. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 2727 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida A new portrait ofA new portrait of diuus Augustusdiuus Augustus fromfrom CaraCara
  28. 28. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 2828 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The memory of Germanicus in Los Bañales’ forumThe memory of Germanicus in Los Bañales’ forum
  29. 29. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 2929 The epigraphic evidence on Germanicus’ memory (The epigraphic evidence on Germanicus’ memory (HEpHEp5, 734 &5, 734 & CILCIL IIII22 /5, 900)/5, 900) The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida
  30. 30. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 3030 The sculptural program of theThe sculptural program of the ciuitasciuitas of Santa Criz de Eslavaof Santa Criz de Eslava The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida
  31. 31. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 3131 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The role of the local elite: public benefactors and patronsThe role of the local elite: public benefactors and patrons
  32. 32. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 3232 Statue base dedicated to Tiberius, 31-32 AD (Statue base dedicated to Tiberius, 31-32 AD (AEAE 2015, 656)2015, 656) Ti(berio)· Caesari · Aug(usti) ·Ti(berio)· Caesari · Aug(usti) · f(ilio) diui · n(epoti)· Aug(usto) ·f(ilio) diui · n(epoti)· Aug(usto) · pont(ifici)· maxumopont(ifici)· maxumo imp(eratori)· VIII · trib(unicia)· pot(estate)imp(eratori)· VIII · trib(unicia)· pot(estate) 55 XXXIII · co(n)s(uli)· V ·XXXIII · co(n)s(uli)· V · Q(uintus)· Sempronius· L(ucii)· f(ilius)Q(uintus)· Sempronius· L(ucii)· f(ilius) Vitulus· dec(urio)· equit(um)Vitulus· dec(urio)· equit(um) test(amento)· f(ieri)· iussittest(amento)· f(ieri)· iussit The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida
  33. 33. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 3333 [Q(uinto)] Sempronio · L(ucii) f(ilio)[Q(uinto)] Sempronio · L(ucii) f(ilio) VituioVituio (sic)(sic) · dec(urioni) · equit(um) ·· dec(urioni) · equit(um) · alae Taurianae ·alae Taurianae · [s]ub· praefecto ·[s]ub· praefecto · 55 [c]oh(ortis)· Germanorum ·[c]oh(ortis)· Germanorum · [-c.4-]us lib(ertus) ·[-c.4-]us lib(ertus) · [p(osuit)?]· ex · test(amento) ·[p(osuit)?]· ex · test(amento) · More on the program honouring Tiberius, 31-32 AD (More on the program honouring Tiberius, 31-32 AD (AEAE 2015, 657)2015, 657) The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida
  34. 34. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 3434 More on the program honouring Tiberius, 31-32 AD (More on the program honouring Tiberius, 31-32 AD (ZPEZPE 200, 2016)200, 2016) Q(uinto) Sempronio · L(ucii) · f(ilio)Q(uinto) Sempronio · L(ucii) · f(ilio) Vitulo · dec(urioni) · equit(um)Vitulo · dec(urioni) · equit(um) alaealae ⋅⋅ Taurianae ·Taurianae · sub· praefecto ·sub· praefecto · 55 coh(ortis)· Germanor(um) ·coh(ortis)· Germanor(um) · Aesop[u]s lib(ertus) ·Aesop[u]s lib(ertus) · The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida
  35. 35. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 3535 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The role of theThe role of the dignitasdignitas: monumentalization and dignification: monumentalization and dignification
  36. 36. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 3636 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The plan of the forum at Los Bañales (by Luis Romero)The plan of the forum at Los Bañales (by Luis Romero)
  37. 37. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 3737 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The digital reconstruction of the forum at Los Bañales (by Pablo Serrano)The digital reconstruction of the forum at Los Bañales (by Pablo Serrano)
  38. 38. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 3838 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The plan of the forum at Santa Criz de Eslava (by P. Sáez & R. Armendáriz)The plan of the forum at Santa Criz de Eslava (by P. Sáez & R. Armendáriz)
  39. 39. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 3939 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The role of theThe role of the aemulatioaemulatio: urban competition and imitation: urban competition and imitation
  40. 40. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 4040 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The role of theThe role of the aemulatioaemulatio: urban competition and imitation: urban competition and imitation
  41. 41. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 4141 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The role of the cultural globalization: the epigraphic habitThe role of the cultural globalization: the epigraphic habit
  42. 42. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 4242 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The cultural globalization: the epigraphic habit (The cultural globalization: the epigraphic habit (CAUNCAUN 27, 2018 y27, 2018 y CILCIL II, 2974)II, 2974)
  43. 43. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 4343 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The role of theThe role of the ius Latiiius Latii and theand the ciuitas Romana per honoremciuitas Romana per honorem on Flavian timeson Flavian times
  44. 44. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 4444 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The final consolidation of a model (The final consolidation of a model (CILCIL II, 2973, Sádaba)II, 2973, Sádaba) C(aio) ·C(aio) · Atilio·Atilio· L(ucii) f(ilio) Quirina GenialiL(ucii) f(ilio) Quirina Geniali AtiliaAtilia ·· Festa auoFesta auo L(ucio) ·L(ucio) · Atilio·Atilio· C(aii) ·C(aii) · f(ilio) Quirina Festof(ilio) Quirina Festo Atilia ·Atilia · Festa ·Festa · patri ·patri · optimooptimo Atilia·Atilia· L(ucii)·L(ucii)· f(ilia) ·f(ilia) · Festa ·Festa · et ·et · sibisibi se ·se · uiua ·uiua · fecitfecit
  45. 45. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 4545 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The reactivation of personal munificence (The reactivation of personal munificence (AEAE 2014, 701-705)2014, 701-705)
  46. 46. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 4646 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The reactivation of personal munificence (The reactivation of personal munificence (AEAE 2014, 701-705)2014, 701-705)
  47. 47. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 4747 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida Reconstruction of theReconstruction of the Victoria AugustiVictoria Augusti’s’s scholaschola (by Pablo Serrano)(by Pablo Serrano)
  48. 48. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 4848 Vict[o]Vict[o] riaeriae A[ug?]A[ug?] The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida The local elite helping and solving urban needs (The local elite helping and solving urban needs (SHASHA 36, 2018)36, 2018)
  49. 49. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 4949 The so-calledThe so-called parua oppidaparua oppida Public works as an exhibition of civic pride: the baths at Los Bañales (by I. Diéguez)Public works as an exhibition of civic pride: the baths at Los Bañales (by I. Diéguez)
  50. 50. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 5050 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches Some new issues connected with the main problem discussed hereSome new issues connected with the main problem discussed here
  51. 51. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 5151 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches On a new publication on that subjectOn a new publication on that subject
  52. 52. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 5252 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches On another incoming publication on that subjectOn another incoming publication on that subject
  53. 53. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 5353 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches A new model of comprehension of an essential questionA new model of comprehension of an essential question
  54. 54. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 5454 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches A new model of comprehension of an essential questionA new model of comprehension of an essential question
  55. 55. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 5555 The end of the “golden age”The end of the “golden age” Cassius DioCassius Dio (155-235 AD)(155-235 AD) Roman HistoryRoman History 72, 36, 472, 36, 4 <<<< This matterThis matter [the problems on the relationship[the problems on the relationship between Marcus Aurelius and Commodus]between Marcus Aurelius and Commodus] mustmust be our next topic; for our history now descendsbe our next topic; for our history now descends from a kingdom of goldfrom a kingdom of gold (jrysés té basiléias)(jrysés té basiléias) to oneto one of iron and rustof iron and rust (katapesúsés tés jistorías)(katapesúsés tés jistorías) asas affairs did for the Romans of that dayaffairs did for the Romans of that day >>>>
  56. 56. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 5656 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches A new model of comprehension of an essential questionA new model of comprehension of an essential question
  57. 57. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 5757 On the so-calledOn the so-called oppida labentiaoppida labentia SHA.SHA. Vita Marci AureliVita Marci Aureli 23, 423, 4 <<<< He himself was very sparing of the publicHe himself was very sparing of the public money in giving largessmoney in giving largess (in largitionibus pecuniae(in largitionibus pecuniae publicae)publicae), a fact which we mention rather in praise, a fact which we mention rather in praise tan in disparagement, but nevertheless he gavetan in disparagement, but nevertheless he gave financial assistance to the deserving, furnished aid,financial assistance to the deserving, furnished aid, to towns on the brink of ruinto towns on the brink of ruin (oppidis labentibus)(oppidis labentibus),, and, when necessity demanded, cancelled tributeand, when necessity demanded, cancelled tribute or taxesor taxes >>>>Historia AugustaHistoria Augusta (117-284 AD)(117-284 AD)
  58. 58. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 5858 InfirmitasInfirmitas,, tenuitastenuitas,, difficultatesdifficultates AEAE 1962, 288 from1962, 288 from MuniguaMunigua: on sustainability challenges of cities in Spain: on sustainability challenges of cities in Spain
  59. 59. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 5959 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches A new model of comprehension of an essential questionA new model of comprehension of an essential question
  60. 60. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 6060 Ancient viewsAncient views usus. new approaches. new approaches Our panel to the 19th AIAC Conference in Cologne-Bonn (May, 2018)Our panel to the 19th AIAC Conference in Cologne-Bonn (May, 2018)
  61. 61. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 6161 The cities of Hispania: a facade of wellfare?The cities of Hispania: a facade of wellfare? Epigrafía Jurídica de la España RomanaEpigrafía Jurídica de la España Romana, Madrid, 1953, p. 142, Madrid, 1953, p. 142 <<<< El auge del desarrollo de la vida municipal sueleEl auge del desarrollo de la vida municipal suele colocarse en el siglo II y, concretamente paracolocarse en el siglo II y, concretamente para España, en la época de Adriano, ya desde Trajano.España, en la época de Adriano, ya desde Trajano. Pero no deja de ser verdad que tal apogeo era másPero no deja de ser verdad que tal apogeo era más bien una apariencia de bienestar generalbien una apariencia de bienestar general [facade of[facade of wellfare]wellfare], explotado por pequeños grupos caciquiles,, explotado por pequeños grupos caciquiles, y que, pese a las apariencias, la organización de lasy que, pese a las apariencias, la organización de las ciudades carecía de aquellas reservas de vitalciudades carecía de aquellas reservas de vital autonomía necesariasautonomía necesarias [financial reserves][financial reserves] parapara superar la decadencia en que inmediatamentesuperar la decadencia en que inmediatamente incurrieron. La ruina del Imperioincurrieron. La ruina del Imperio [ruin of Empire][ruin of Empire] fue precedida de una ruina de las ciudadesfue precedida de una ruina de las ciudades [ruin of[ruin of cities in advance] >>cities in advance] >> Álvaro D’OrsÁlvaro D’Ors (1915-(1915- 2004)2004)
  62. 62. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 6262 Ideology and bases of municipal systemIdeology and bases of municipal system The recognition of municipal working of communities by the Flavian periodThe recognition of municipal working of communities by the Flavian period
  63. 63. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 6363 Obsessed with theObsessed with the pecunia communispecunia communis Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 20 [, Ch. 20 [De iure et potestate quaestorumDe iure et potestate quaestorum]] <<<< And they are to have the right and power ofAnd they are to have the right and power of collectingcollecting (exigendi)(exigendi),, spendingspending (erogandi)(erogandi),, keepingkeeping (custodiendi)(custodiendi),, administeringadministering (atministrandi)(atministrandi) andand looking afterlooking after (dispensandi)(dispensandi) the common funds ofthe common funds of thethe municipesmunicipes of thatof that municipiummunicipium (pecunia(pecunia communem municipum)communem municipum) at the discretion of theat the discretion of the duumviriduumviri >>>>Lex Irnitana (91 AD)
  64. 64. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 6464 Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 60 [, Ch. 60 [Vt de pecunia communi municipum caueatur ab hisVt de pecunia communi municipum caueatur ab his]] <<<< Those who in thatThose who in that municipiummunicipium seek theseek the duumvirate or the quaestorship or are forced intoduumvirate or the quaestorship or are forced into that position by being nominatedthat position by being nominated (…)(…),, each of them,each of them, on the day of which the election is held, before theon the day of which the election is held, before the votes are cast, is to provided at the discretion of thevotes are cast, is to provided at the discretion of the person who holds that electionperson who holds that election praedespraedes to theto the common account of thecommon account of the municipesmunicipes, that their, that their common funds which he handels in the course ofcommon funds which he handels in the course of this office will be kept safe for themthis office will be kept safe for them (pecuniam(pecuniam communem municipum saluam is fore)communem municipum saluam is fore) >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD) Obsessed with theObsessed with the pecunia communispecunia communis
  65. 65. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 6565 Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 80 [, Ch. 80 [De pecunia publica mutua sumendaDe pecunia publica mutua sumenda]] <<<< If theIf the decurionesdecuriones oror conscripticonscripti of thatof that municipiummunicipium decide under oath by ballot, when notdecide under oath by ballot, when not less than three quarters of them are present, thatless than three quarters of them are present, that any loan is to be raised for the use of theany loan is to be raised for the use of the resres publicapublica of theof the municium Flauium Irnitanummunicium Flauium Irnitanum andand those funds are ‘entered as spent’ to thethose funds are ‘entered as spent’ to the municipesmunicipes,, provided that no more than 50.000 sesterces areprovided that no more than 50.000 sesterces are ‘entered as spent’‘entered as spent’ (erogatio pecuniae)(erogatio pecuniae) to them into them in one year, except with the authorization of theone year, except with the authorization of the person who governs that province (…)person who governs that province (…) >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD) Obsessed with theObsessed with the pecunia communispecunia communis
  66. 66. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 6666 Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 79 [, Ch. 79 [De pecunia communi municipum erogandaDe pecunia communi municipum eroganda]] <<<< (…) nor is he to propose it to the(…) nor is he to propose it to the municipesmunicipes ofof thatthat municipiummunicipium, nor is he to distribute or divide, nor is he to distribute or divide up or allot their common funds to the colonists ofup or allot their common funds to the colonists of thethe decurionesdecuriones oror conscripticonscripti (distribuenda,(distribuenda, diuidenda, discribenda inter municipes)diuidenda, discribenda inter municipes), nor is he, nor is he to raise with theto raise with the decurionesdecuriones oror conscripticonscripti alienating, reducing, spending or lending in thealienating, reducing, spending or lending in the name of thename of the municipesmunicipes the funds which are thethe funds which are the common funds of thecommon funds of the municipesmunicipes (…) when fewer(…) when fewer are present than could make up three quarters ofare present than could make up three quarters of the whole number ofthe whole number of decurionesdecuriones oror conscripticonscripti >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD) Obsessed with theObsessed with the pecunia communispecunia communis
  67. 67. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 6767 Thinking about theThinking about the res communisres communis tootoo Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 26 [, Ch. 26 [De iure iurando IIuirorum et aedilium et quaestorumDe iure iurando IIuirorum et aedilium et quaestorum]] <<<< (…) and that he will not knowingly and with(…) and that he will not knowingly and with wrongful intent do anything contrary to this statuewrongful intent do anything contrary to this statue (ex hac lege)(ex hac lege) or to the common good of theor to the common good of the municipesmunicipes of thatof that municipiummunicipium (exque re communi(exque re communi municipum)municipum) and that he will restrain those whom heand that he will restrain those whom he is able to restrain and that he will neither initiate ais able to restrain and that he will neither initiate a coursecourse (of action)(of action) nor advise it nor express annor advise it nor express an opinion otherwise tan he believes to be acoording toopinion otherwise tan he believes to be acoording to this statute and to the common good of thethis statute and to the common good of the municipesmunicipes of thatof that municipiummunicipium ((res communisres communis municipummunicipum)) (…) Anyone who has not sworn in this(…) Anyone who has not sworn in this way is to be condemned to pay 10,000 sesterces to theway is to be condemned to pay 10,000 sesterces to the municipesmunicipes of thatof that municipiummunicipium >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD)
  68. 68. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 6868 TheThe res prolataeres prolatae and the farming basesand the farming bases Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. K [, Ch. K [De rebus proferendisDe rebus proferendis]] <<<< (…) for what period within their term of office(…) for what period within their term of office they wish business to be postponed for the harvest orthey wish business to be postponed for the harvest or the vintagethe vintage (per quos dies res prolatas intra suum(per quos dies res prolatas intra suum honorem messis uindemiae causa) >>honorem messis uindemiae causa) >> Lex Irnitana (91 AD)
  69. 69. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 6969 AAdlectio ad numerumdlectio ad numerum and compromiseand compromise Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 31 [, Ch. 31 [De conuocandis edicto decuriones aut sublegendos…De conuocandis edicto decuriones aut sublegendos…]] <<<< In any year in which there are fewer tan 63In any year in which there are fewer tan 63 decurionesdecuriones oror conscripticonscripti in thatin that municipiummunicipium (…)(…) unless choice or choice in replacement ofunless choice or choice in replacement of decurionesdecuriones oror conscripticonscripti has already taken place in that yearhas already taken place in that year (facta decurionum conscriptorumue lectio sublectio)(facta decurionum conscriptorumue lectio sublectio) the duumviri in charge of the administration ofthe duumviri in charge of the administration of justice in that year, either or both of them at thejustice in that year, either or both of them at the earliest posible opportunity, as they may thinkearliest posible opportunity, as they may think proper, are to raise with theproper, are to raise with the decurionesdecuriones oror conscripticonscripti (…) in replacement or substitution of those whose(…) in replacement or substitution of those whose addition to the number ofaddition to the number of decurionesdecuriones oror conscripticonscripti will lead to the presence of 63will lead to the presence of 63 decurionesdecuriones oror conscripticonscripti in thatin that municipiummunicipium >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD)
  70. 70. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 7070 MunitionesMunitiones, compromise and public duties, compromise and public duties Lex IrnitanaLex Irnitana, Ch. 83 [, Ch. 83 [De munitioneDe munitione]] <<<< (…) whoever is a(…) whoever is a municepsmuniceps oror incolaincola of thatof that municipiummunicipium or lives or has a field or fields within theor lives or has a field or fields within the boundaries of thatboundaries of that municipiummunicipium, all of them are to be, all of them are to be obliged to give, carry out and provide those days ofobliged to give, carry out and provide those days of workwork (munitione damni cui facttum erit ex re(munitione damni cui facttum erit ex re cmmuni it aestimetur)cmmuni it aestimetur) >>>> Lex Irnitana (91 AD)
  71. 71. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 7171 On early financial problems on citiesOn early financial problems on cities EpistulaeEpistulae 10, 17b & 1810, 17b & 18 <<<< [Pliny to Trajan][Pliny to Trajan] I entered this province on theI entered this province on the 17th of September (…); for I am inclined to think17th of September (…); for I am inclined to think much might be deducted from what is charged bymuch might be deducted from what is charged by those who have the conduct of the public works if athose who have the conduct of the public works if a faithful admeasurement were to be taken: at least Ifaithful admeasurement were to be taken: at least I am of that opinion from what I have already seen ofam of that opinion from what I have already seen of the accounts of this city (…)the accounts of this city (…) [Trajan to Pliny][Trajan to Pliny] TheThe examination of the public accountsexamination of the public accounts (rationes rerum(rationes rerum publicarum)publicarum) ought certainly to be your firstought certainly to be your first employment, as they are evident in great desorderemployment, as they are evident in great desorder (eas uexatas satis constat)(eas uexatas satis constat) >>>> Pliny the YoungerPliny the Younger (61-113 AD)(61-113 AD)
  72. 72. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 7272 Again on towns of the brink of ruinAgain on towns of the brink of ruin SHA.SHA. Vita Antonini PiiVita Antonini Pii 8, 48, 4 <<<< Beside all this, he helped many communitiesBeside all this, he helped many communities (multas ciuitates adiuuit pecunia)(multas ciuitates adiuuit pecunia) to erect newto erect new buildings and to restore the oldbuildings and to restore the old (ut opera noua(ut opera noua facerent uel uetera restituerent)facerent uel uetera restituerent); and he even gave; and he even gave pecuniary aid to Roman magistrates and senators topecuniary aid to Roman magistrates and senators to assist them in the performance of their duties >>assist them in the performance of their duties >> Historia Augusta (117-284 AD)
  73. 73. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 7373 AA check-listcheck-list for the urbanfor the urban decusdecus CILCIL III, 352 fromIII, 352 from OrcistusOrcistus <<<< (…); and that there is an abundant supply(…); and that there is an abundant supply of waterof water (aquarum abundans afluentia)(aquarum abundans afluentia), and, and public as well as private bathspublic as well as private baths (labacra publica(labacra publica priuataque)priuataque), and a forum adorned with statues, and a forum adorned with statues of former emperorsof former emperors (forum statuis ueterum(forum statuis ueterum Principum ornatum)Principum ornatum), and a populace of, and a populace of inhabitants so abundantinhabitants so abundant (populum(populum commanentium)commanentium) that the seats there are easilythat the seats there are easily filled; furthermore, from the water channelsfilled; furthermore, from the water channels running past, there is an abundant number ofrunning past, there is an abundant number of water-millswater-mills (aquarum aquimolinarum(aquarum aquimolinarum numerum copiosum) >>numerum copiosum) >>
  74. 74. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 7474 Los Bañales, anLos Bañales, an oppidum labensoppidum labens The abandonment of the forum’s basilicaThe abandonment of the forum’s basilica
  75. 75. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 7575 The evidences of Santa Criz de EslavaThe evidences of Santa Criz de Eslava Architectural and financial problems in a small-size cityArchitectural and financial problems in a small-size city
  76. 76. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 7676 ParapetasiaParapetasia and ilegal constructions in some spaces at the forumand ilegal constructions in some spaces at the forum Los Bañales, anLos Bañales, an oppidum labensoppidum labens
  77. 77. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 7777 The end of the official sculptural programsThe end of the official sculptural programs Los Bañales, anLos Bañales, an oppidum labensoppidum labens
  78. 78. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 7878 Los Bañales, anLos Bañales, an oppidum labensoppidum labens The end of theThe end of the aquarum afluentiaaquarum afluentia from the dam of the aqueductfrom the dam of the aqueduct
  79. 79. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 7979 The effect of the “Antonine plague”The effect of the “Antonine plague” Eutrop. 8, 12 (& Cass. Dio 72, 14, 3-4)Eutrop. 8, 12 (& Cass. Dio 72, 14, 3-4) <<<< (…) since, under the emperor(…) since, under the emperor [Marcus[Marcus Aurelius]Aurelius], after the victory over the Partians, after the victory over the Partians [and[and over the Marcomani, on 174 AD]over the Marcomani, on 174 AD] there occurred sothere occurred so destructive a pestilencedestructive a pestilence (casus pestilentiae fuit)(casus pestilentiae fuit) that at Rome, and throughout Italy and thethat at Rome, and throughout Italy and the provinces, the greater part of the inhabitantsprovinces, the greater part of the inhabitants (maxima hominum pars defecit)(maxima hominum pars defecit) and almost all theand almost all the tropos, sunk under the diseasetropos, sunk under the disease >>>> Eutropius (c. 363 AD)
  80. 80. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 8080 The repression of Clodius Albinus’ revoltThe repression of Clodius Albinus’ revolt SHA.SHA. Vita Septimi SeueriVita Septimi Seueri 1212 <<<< Countless persons who had sided withCountless persons who had sided with AlbinusAlbinus were put to deathwere put to death (interfectis innumeris Albini(interfectis innumeris Albini partium uiris)partium uiris), among them numerous leading men, among them numerous leading men and many distinguished women, and their goodsand many distinguished women, and their goods were confiscated and went to swell the publicwere confiscated and went to swell the public treasury. Many nobles of the Gauls and Spains weretreasury. Many nobles of the Gauls and Spains were also put to death at this timealso put to death at this time (cum Hispanorum et(cum Hispanorum et Gallorum proceres multi occisi sunt)Gallorum proceres multi occisi sunt) (…) Yet, as a(…) Yet, as a result of these confiscations, he left his sons aresult of these confiscations, he left his sons a fortune greater tan any other emperor had left to hisfortune greater tan any other emperor had left to his heirs, for he had made a large part of the gold in theheirs, for he had made a large part of the gold in the Gauls, SpainsGauls, Spains (magnam partem auri per Galias, per(magnam partem auri per Galias, per Hispanias)Hispanias) and Italy imperial propertyand Italy imperial property >>>> Historia Augusta (117-284 AD)
  81. 81. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 8181 Tiberius Claudius Candidus (Tiberius Claudius Candidus (CILCIL IIII22 /14-2, 975)/14-2, 975) Tib(erio) ·Tib(erio) · Cl(audio)·Cl(audio)· Candido ·Candido · c(on)s(uli)c(on)s(uli) XVuir(o)· s(acris)· f(aciundis)·XVuir(o)· s(acris)· f(aciundis)· leg(ato) ·leg(ato) · Augg(ustorum)Augg(ustorum) pr(o)· pr(aetore)· prouinc(iae) H(ispaniae)·pr(o)· pr(aetore)· prouinc(iae) H(ispaniae)· C(iterioris) ·C(iterioris) · et in ea duci terra mariqueet in ea duci terra marique 55 aduersus rebelles hh(ostes) pp(ublicos)aduersus rebelles hh(ostes) pp(ublicos) item Asiae item Noricaeitem Asiae item Noricae duci exercitus Illyriciduci exercitus Illyrici expeditione Asiana item Parthicaexpeditione Asiana item Parthica item Gallica logistae ciuitatisitem Gallica logistae ciuitatis 1010 splendidissimae Nicomedensiumsplendidissimae Nicomedensium item Ephesiorum leg(ato) pr(o) pr(aetore) prouin(ciae)item Ephesiorum leg(ato) pr(o) pr(aetore) prouin(ciae) Asiae cur(atori) ciuitatis TeanensiumAsiae cur(atori) ciuitatis Teanensium allecto inter praetorios itemallecto inter praetorios item tribunicios proc(uratori) XX hered(itatium) pertribunicios proc(uratori) XX hered(itatium) per 1515 Gallias Lugdunensem et BelGallias Lugdunensem et Bel gicam et utramqu(ue) Germaniamgicam et utramqu(ue) Germaniam praeposito copiarum expeditipraeposito copiarum expediti onis Germanicae secundaeonis Germanicae secundae trib(uno) mil(itum) leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) praefectotrib(uno) mil(itum) leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) praefecto 2020 coh(o)rtis secundae ciuiumcoh(o)rtis secundae ciuium romanorum Silius Hospes hastatus leg(ionis) Xromanorum Silius Hospes hastatus leg(ionis) X Geminae strator eiusGeminae strator eius optimo praesidioptimo praesidi
  82. 82. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 8282 Depopulation because of theDepopulation because of the pestilentiapestilentia?? The case ofThe case of LabitolosaLabitolosa (La Puebla de Castro, Huesca, Spain)(La Puebla de Castro, Huesca, Spain)
  83. 83. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 8383 A consequence of the official repression?A consequence of the official repression? On the so-calledOn the so-called urbs truncaurbs trunca ofof colonia Itucicolonia Ituci (Torreparedones, Córdoba, Spain)(Torreparedones, Córdoba, Spain)
  84. 84. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 8484 Crisis on the basis of economic problemsCrisis on the basis of economic problems SegobrigaSegobriga (Saelices, Cuenca, Spain) and the(Saelices, Cuenca, Spain) and the lapis specularislapis specularis
  85. 85. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 8585 Crisis on the basis of economic problemsCrisis on the basis of economic problems SisapoSisapo (La Bienvenida, Ciudad Real, Spain) and the cinnabar(La Bienvenida, Ciudad Real, Spain) and the cinnabar
  86. 86. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 8686 Crisis as a consequence of urban competitionCrisis as a consequence of urban competition The case of the competition betweenThe case of the competition between LucentumLucentum (Alicante) and(Alicante) and IliciIlici (Elche, Spain)(Elche, Spain)
  87. 87. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 8787 Crisis before “the crisis”: final reflectionCrisis before “the crisis”: final reflection The municipal system containing the seed of its own ruinThe municipal system containing the seed of its own ruin
  88. 88. June, 2019June, 2019 Los Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de EslavaLos Bañales de Uncastillo & Santa Criz de Eslava 8888 Javier ANDREU PINTADOJavier ANDREU PINTADO Universidad de NavarraUniversidad de Navarra https://unav.academia.edu/JavierAndreuhttps://unav.academia.edu/JavierAndreu http://www.losbanales.eshttp://www.losbanales.es http://www.santacrizdeeslava.comhttp://www.santacrizdeeslava.com jandreup@unav.esjandreup@unav.es

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