No hay notas en la diapositiva.
After all, Australia is a fairly wealthy country
Figure demonstrates how US citizens are, on average, more wealthy than the other countries shown (particularly Australia) and getting wealthier.
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). For 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
And wealth seems to be increasing
Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI). Starts with the same accounting framework as the GDP, but then makes some crucial distinctions: It adds the economic contributions of household and volunteer work, but subtracts factors such as crime, pollution, and family breakdown.
Source: Reserve Bank of Australia (2000)
AMP • NATSEM. Income & Wealth Report (Issue 1): AMP • NATSEM, 2002:16.
Australian Council of Social Service. (2003). The Bare Necessities: Poverty and Deprivation in Australia Today. Submission to the Senate Inquiry into Poverty and Financial Hardship. Sydney: Author.
From http://www.unicef.org/pon96/insolo.htm, which sites the source as:
Luxembourg Income Study, Working Paper No. 127. The poverty line is defined as 50% of national median income after taxes and transfers.
Concern with inequality is particularly warranted in light of societal changes that we are experiencing.
These changes appear to be having detrimental impacts on child development and wellbeing.
[NSW First Three Years Project, 2001 #468] [Zubrick, 2002 #503] Some changes include:
Demographic changes: [Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003 #413]
increasing divorce rates;
increasing numbers of one-parent families;
increasing labour force participation rates of women of child-bearing age; and
increasing joblessness in families.
Workplace changes: [Russell, 2000 #476]
Increased women in the workforce, including mothers and sole parents;
longer hours for full-time workers;
growth in part-time and casual jobs, particularly for women;
increased job insecurity;
increased competition and job demands.
These work demands mean that children are spending less time with parents and more time in out-of-home care. Further, work-related stress can impact upon partner-relationships and stress in the home, which can impact upon parenting behaviour, which can then impact upon children’s behaviour. [Russell, 2000 #476]
Long work hours in first year of life and nonstandard work hours (now a major type of work for working mothers) pose a risk to child development. [National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2000 #317]
The world is experiencing increased wealth, but also increased gaps between rich and poor. [Keating, 1999 #12] This is evident in Australia. [Cass, 2002 #504] There is a large body of evidence suggesting that such gaps are detrimental to the health and well being of societies. [Keating, 1999 #12] [Cass, 2002 #504]
Children disproportionately live in the lower end of the economic scale, in poverty:
17% of children in Australia lived in poverty in 2000. [Australian Council of Social Service, 2003 #426]
In 1999, dependent children comprised almost 30% of people living in impoverished circumstances [Cass, 2002 #504]
Poverty is one of the most consistent indicators of poorer child outcomes [National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2000 #317] [Cass, 2002 #504]
Cultural Richard Eckersley described how ‘Historically, most societies have reinforced values that emphasised social obligations and self-restraint and discouraged those that promoted self-indulgence and anti-social behaviour…Modern Western culture turned this value system on its head.’ (p. 95) [Eckersley, 2002 #505] He argued that this change was driven by several inter-related cultural trends which have had escalating costs because they have been takenn too far, too fast, and altogether. These trends are:
Consumerism: lifestyle characterised by acquisition of material goods
Individualism: the individual is at the centre of a framework of values, norms and beliefs which was previously characterised by dignity and self-determination but is now characterised by an ethic of self-centredness and self-gratification
Economism: An ecoomic system in which material concerns are primary, moral concerns are irrelevant
Postmodernism: ‘anything goes’ values.
Eckersley associates the lack of belonging, meaning, identity and hope in society to problems such as suicide.
These trends suggest the need for urgent attention to the family and social environment of children.
See next slides for long-term graph (decades) with economic (and other social?) trends and drug use trends in Australia?
Examples of economic trends: socio-economic gaps, GDP (wealth), % below poverty line
Other social: sole parents, working parents, (ABS/AIHW – see endnote file)
Examples of drug indicators: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, overdoses