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LA CIUDAD VIVA: POLITICA PUBLICA VIVIENDA: INDUSTRIAL/FINANCIERA/ESTATAL vs. HABITACIONAL/RESIDENCIAL/COMUN

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Ponencia Jornadas La Ciudad Viva DEL URBANISMO A LA CIUDADANIA. Sevilla 9-11 de octubre 2013

Publicado en: Educación
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LA CIUDAD VIVA: POLITICA PUBLICA VIVIENDA: INDUSTRIAL/FINANCIERA/ESTATAL vs. HABITACIONAL/RESIDENCIAL/COMUN

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL / FINACIERA / ESTATAL VS. HABITACIONAL/ DOTACIONAL / COMUN
  2. 2.  PROGRAMAS DE ALOJAMIENTO PARA CLASES POPULARES/MEDIAS. 1. POLÍTICAS DE CONGELACIÓN DE ALQUILERES PRIVADOS. 2. AYUDAS A LA PRODUCCIÓN DE VIVIENDA PUBLICA/ASEQUIBLE EN ALQUILER. 3. AYUDAS A LAS PERSONAS PARA EL PAGO DE ALQUILERES PRIVADOS.  CRISIS DEL PETRÓLEO 70 + REVOLUCIÓN CONSERVADORA 80: DESCENSO DE LOS PRESUPUESTOS PÚBLICOS PARA VIVIENDAS EN ALQUILER. AUMENTO DE AYUDAS FISCALES A LA COMPRA.  VARIOS MODELOS EUROPEOS DE POLÍTICA PÚBLICA DE VIVIENDA.
  3. 3.  DISTANCIAS IMPORTANTES ENTRE LOS DIFERENTES EE.MM DE LA UE ALQUILER SOCIAL SOBRE EL TOTAL DE VIVIENDAS: 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% HOLANDA DINAMARCA-AUSTRIA-REINO UNIDO FRANCIA-POLONIA-SUECIA-FINLANDIA ESPAÑA GRECIA
  4. 4. VIVIENDAS SOCIALES EN ALQUILER POR CADA 1000 HABITANTES.
  5. 5. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% HOLANDA REINO UNIDO AUSTRIA FINLANDIA ESPAÑA GRECIA 77% 68% 53% 52% 10% 0% ALQUILER PÚBLICO VS PRIVADO.
  6. 6.  MENOR PESO EN EL PIB Y EL EMPLEO  VIVIENDA PÚBLICA/SOCIAL/ASEQUIBLE = VIVIENDA ALQUILER  SE INCREMENTAN LAS AYUDAS FISCALES PARA LA COMPRA DE VIVIENDA LIBRE (DESDE FINALES DE LOS 80 HASTA HOY).  OBJETIVO DE LAS POLÍTICAS: OBTENER VIVIENDA ASEQUIBLE ≠ CONSTRUIR NUEVA VIVIENDA.  FUERTE PESO DE LA REHABILITACIÓN vs. CONSTRUCCION: FRA 70/30 ESP 30/70  PAPEL DESTACADO DE LOS AYTOS. E INICIATIVA SOCIAL (COMUNITARIA + PROFESIONAL + SIN ANIMO DE LUCRO).  UNIDADES DE GESTIÓN PUBLICAS-COMUNITARIAS (INDEPENDIENTES-SOBERANAS) ESPECIALIZADAS EN MATERIA DE VIVIENDA.  PRESUPUESTOS PÚBLICOS SOSTENIDOS EN EL TIEMPO (2%-3% PIB y 25% gasto fiscal).
  7. 7.  AUNQUE DISMINUYE EN MUCHOS ESTADOS: CRISIS PETRÓLEO 70, REVOLUCIÓN NEOCONSERVADORA 80, PROGRAMAS AJUSTE UE 90, CRISTAFA ACTUAL …  AHORRO POPULAR/BANCA PÚBLICA/COOPERATIVA PRIVADA AL SERVICIO DE LA VIVIENDA PUBLICA/SOCIAL/ASEQUIBLE.  SE CONVIERTE LA VIVIENDA EN UNA “COMMODITY” (MERCANCÍA FINANCIERA).  URBANISMO, VIVIENDA Y POLÍTICAS SOCIALES COMO UN TODO INTEGRAL.
  8. 8.  SEVERAS DIFICULTADES PRESUPUESTARIAS, DE GESTIÓN Y DE ENCAJE SOCIAL DE LA POLÍTICA PÚBLICA 100% ALQUILER SOCIAL. 1. LAS CLASES MEDIAS ACAPARAN LAS DESGRAVACIONES FISCALES A LA COMPRA DE VIVIENDA. 2. LAS CLASES POPULARES DEPENDEN DEL MENGUANTE PARQUE PUBLICO Y DE ENTIDADES SIN ANIMO DE LUCRO.  A PESAR DE TODO NO SE CONSIGUE EN EL RESTO DE EUROPA QUE LA VIVIENDA SEA UN DERECHO SOCIAL AL MISMO NIVEL QUE LA SANIDAD/EDUCACION.  LAS POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS ORIENTADAS A GARANTIZAR EL ACCESO A UNA VIVIENDA DIGNA A PRECIOS RAZONABLES DAN SUS FRUTOS EN FORMA DE BUENAS PRÁCTICAS Y MODELO DE REFERENCIAS. BBC - The Rise and Fall of the Council House (2011)
  9. 9.  SUPERADA LA POSTGUERRA, OBSESIÓN DEL RÉGIMEN FRANQUISTA ES AUMENTAR EL NÚMERO DE PROPIETARIOS.  LAS SUBSIDICACIONES DE TIPO DE INTERÉS PARA LA COMPRA DE VPO DESCALIFICABLE/VL EN PROPIEDAD ES UN INSTRUMENTO HEREDADO ACRITICAMENTE DEL FRANQUISMO.  EL ARTÍCULO 47 DE NUESTRA CONSTITUCIÓN ES MÁS UNA RUPTURA SEMÁNTICA QUE REAL.
  10. 10.  EN LOS PRIMEROS AÑOS DE LA DEMOCRACIA HAY UNA REINVINDICACIÓN SOCIAL (CALIDAD DE VIDA) DIRIGIDAS POR ASOCIACIONES DE VECINOS DE BARRIOS.  LOS PLANES ESTATALES Y AUTONÓMICOS NO SE PLANTEA RUPTURA AL MODELO HEREDADO.  LOS PLANES DE VIVIENDA ASPIRABAN A HACER MÁS, PERO SIEMPRE “DE LO MISMO”.
  11. 11.  LA VIVIENDA NO HA SEGUIDO CAMINO DISTINTO A LA SANIDAD Y EDUCACIÓN ESPAÑOLA (DERECHO SUBJETIVO A TECHO + OBLIGACION DE RESULTADOS DE LAS AAPP + PARQUE PUBLICO PERMANENTE + TUTELA JUDICIAL EFECTIVA).  HA HABIDO CIERTA COINCIDENCIA ENTRE LOS AGENTES SOCIALES, ECONÓMICOS Y POLÍTICIOS SOBRE LAS ORIENTACIONES DE NUESTRAS POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS DE VIVIENDAS: SOCIALIZAR PERDIDAS Y PRIVATIZAR BENEFICIOS.
  12. 12.  RESULTADO:  NUESTRAS POLÍTICAS DE VIVIENDA SON: INDUSTRIALES /FINANCIERAS/ESTATALIZADAS.  ESTAMOS MUY LEJOS DE POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS DE VIVIENDA HABITACIONALES/DOTACIONALES.
  13. 13.  1) ATENDER A LAS VICTIMAS DEL COMPLEJO FINANCIERO-INMOBILIARIO.  2) LA CORRUPCIÓN DEBE MINIMIZARSE.  3) LIMITAR POR LEY EL NIVEL DE EXPOSICIÓN AL LADRILLO DE LAS ENTIDADES FINANCIERAS, ASÍ COMO EL NIVEL DE ENDEUDAMIENTO DE PERSONAS Y FAMILIAS Los Tratados (UE) no prejuzgan en modo alguno el régimen de la propiedad en los Estados Miembros. Toda la riqueza del país en sus distintas formas y sea cual fuere su titularidad está subordinada al interés general.
  14. 14.  4) MODIFICAR LA FISCALIDAD DE LA VIVIENDA.  5) PRESUPUESTOS PÚBLICOS/PRESIÓN FISCAL/ BANCA PÚBLICA/AHORRO POPULAR/COOPERATIVAS DE CRÉDITO/ etc..  6) DIFERENTE REPARTO DE PLUSVALÍAS ENTRE LO PÚBLICO Y LO PRIVADO.  7) VALORACIONES DEL SUELO LEGALES NO ESPECULATIVAS.  8) CONSTITUCIONALIZAR/LEGALIZAR EL DERECHO A LA VIVIENDA (TECHO).
  15. 15.  9) NO DAR POR MUERTA A LA VPO Y A LAS RESERVAS DE SUELO PARA VP (AUNQUE SÍ LAS CONOCIDAS HASTA AHORA – VPO “A LA VASCA”).  10) TODOS ESTAMOS A LA BUSQUEDA DE UN MODELO DE ALOJAMIENTO DOTACIONAL PUBLICO Y DE LA FINANCIACION PARA LAS AYUDAS DIRECTAS Y EL PARQUE PUBLICO DE ALQUILER  11) NO SE PUEDE DEFENDER LA FACTIBILIDAD DE LAS ACTUACIONES DE REHABILITACIÓN, LA MOVILIZACIÓN DE VIVIENDA VACÍA O ALQUILER SOCIAL SIN AYUDAS PÚBLICAS Y FINANCIACION ESPECIALIZADA. ¿RESERVAS DE SUELO PARA VIVIENDA EN ALQUILER ASEQUIBLE?
  16. 16.  12) EN CASO DE REHABILITACIÓN ES CLAVE SUMAR DIFERENTES FUENTES DE FINANCIACIÓN (TAMBIEN AUMENTO DENSIDADES Y NUMERO DE VIVIENDAS), UNIDAD DE GESTIÓN Y CIERTOS PERFILES PROFESIONALES/COMUNITARIOS, ADOPTANDO ENFOQUES SINCRÉTICOS Y SINÉRGICOS.  11) EN CASO DE MOVILIZACIÓN DE LA VIVIENDA VACÍA HACIA EL ALQUILER ES CLAVE LA DISCIPLINA PÚBLICA: PALO Y ZANAHORIA EN LOS TIEMPOS DE FROB/MEDE/SAREB … Y TAMBIEN DECRETO LEY 6/2013 Y LEY 4/2013 ANDALUCIA
  17. 17. En LO URBANO-RESIDENCIAL MORATORIA (alto el fuego). HARDWARE FISICO-URBANO vs SOTFWARE URBANO-SOCIAL. HAY QUE REIVINDICAR EL PAPEL DE LO PÚBLICO-ESTATAL (no conviene frivolizar sobre el cansancio del Leviatan). SOCIEDAD CIVIL AUTO-ORGANIZADA: COMUNITARIA/PROFESIONAL. INTERVENCIÓN PÚBLICA ACTIVISMO CIUDADANO/PROFESIONAL.Y
  18. 18. INTERES GENERAL URBANO-RESIDENCIAL OTORGAR EL DINERO PÚBLICO A LOS MEJORES PROYECTOS PRESENTADOS POR LA CIUDADANÍA (AAPP + BARRIOS + PYMES/TECNICOS + GIPP). TIEMPO DE RE Y CO: FROB/MEDE/SAREB, 3Rs, ¿OBLIGACIONES DE REHABILITACIÓN/REGENERACIÓN URBANA A CARGO DE LA PROPIEDAD DE LOS FUTUROS DESARROLLOS URBANOS EN NUEVAS EXPANSIONES? REIVINDICAR EL LADRILLO SANO
  19. 19. ACTIVIDADES URBANÍSTICAS/RESIDENCIALES EXCEDENTARIAS FINANCIAN LAS DEFICITARIAS Y USUARIOS CON EXCEDENTE FINANCIAN A LOS USUARIOS CON DÉFICIT. COOPERATIVIZAR (BASE TRIPARTITA: AAPP + VECINOS + PROFESIONALES GIPP) + (LAS COOP NO HACEN SOLVENTE AL INSOLVENTE NI PROFESIONAL AL QUE NO LO ES). 1. COOPERATIVAS DEFENSIVAS PARA SOBREVIVIR (VP/VL) 2. COOPERATIVAS EN REGIMEN DE CESION DE USO 3. VIVIENDA SENIOR. DESMERCANTILIZAR (DECOMMODIFICATION): REPUBLIFICAR SIN ESTATALIZAR. 1. HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS
  20. 20. EN LO PÚBLICO (más allá de lo urbano residencial). AGRUPAR A LA BÚSQUEDA DE LA MASA CRÍTICA DIVERSIFICAR Y MEZCLAR: VIVIENDA, SERVICIOS SOCIALES, EDUCATIVOS, MENORES, MAYORES, ENERGIA, AGUA, AGRICULTURA, BIOMASA, RESIDUOS … PAQUETIZAR SERVICIOS PÚBLICOS Y ECONOMÍA PÚBLICA. ALIANZAS SECTOR PÚBLICO+COOPERATIVO+MERCANTIL. GIPP EPT ANIP IAC Hyresgästernas sparkasse - och byggnadsförening: “Asociación de inquilinos, invesores y constructores”
  21. 21. javier@urbaniazhgestion.com http://www.urbaniazhgestion.com Twitter URBANIA_GESTION

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